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The following list is compiled from emails of SilverForum subscribers: The list consists of designers and maker's marks that have been difficult to find in reference materials so far. The left box of each row is for the mark, either a photograph or text indicating the name found on the piece. of jewelry, the right box describes the "mystery piece" or designer. When information is found it will appear with credit given to the person who provided it. 
This page includes marks from A-L.  Click here for marks from M-Z.

Click here for a  numerical list of Mexican "Eagle" Marks

"925" Would someone be so kind as to tell me when the mark 925 was first used to identify sterling? Thank you, in advance, for your assistance.

submitted by Cris

First of all, it depends on the country. Marks were introduced by each country at different times, and the rules and regulations involved can be very complex. Some countries, like France, use symbols rather than numbers, and so 925 would never have been used in those countries.

If you can find a copy of Tardy's International Hallmarks on Silver, you will have a better idea of what I'm talking about. I recently found a copy on the web site of "Ms. Information," a bookseller. A link to her site can be found on the Educational and Informational Sites page under Reference on my web site (last listing on the page).

information provided by Christie Romero

925 stands for 925/1000 parts of silver. it would not come into use until after the sterling standard was introduced by england in the later part of the 19th century. 800 830 835 900 are all part of the same system. ae metric. these standards all appear around the turn of the century at various time according to the descretion of the manufacturer. goverment standards have been set for centuries and vary as to marks and country. US silver companies such as Gorham and Tiffany often used both marks in the late 1800's. 

information provided by cbseel

Britain always used the standard 925 and had another standard which is 956 silver which was called Britannia silver (this Britannia silver is seldom seen) and instead of the Lion rampant or lion Pageant you would see Britaina.Britain never used a standard less than 925.Hence why British silver is sought after pre-1900 hundreds. Britain would not accept any standard below 925 as silver. Most European countries up until 1920s used 830s. Scandinavian countries used 830s silver like Denmark moved to using 925 silver in 1927 however even though a higher grade of silver was used by most jewellers in Scandinavia, they stuck to stamping there jewellery 830s as they did not have to pay a tariff to the assaying office for the change over to 925. So most Jewellery made by fine houses in Scandinavia will in fact be marked 830s but will have a standard silver of 925. Places like Egypt still today only use 830 silver

information provided by Vanessa Paterson. Retro Gallery

 I would just like to correct one point. Here in Egypt we have 900 silver and up (hallmarked) and thats the most common grade of silver we have here (this applies to gold too, we dont have 9 karat or 14 karat gold here. The lowest grade is 18 karat).

In silver jewelry you might find less grade depending on the design. This is mostly because its elaborate and demands specific grades to be more managable and workable as most of them are hand made.

Since the times of the pharaohs, silver and gold have been used at the highest grades here in Egypt.

information provided by Randa.


"916" Hi! I've recently come across a piece of silver hallmarked 916. Would anyone know anything about this hallmark and where it was used?

I am also trying to find out more information about hallmarks used in Malta, not only this century but possibly also during the times of the Knights (circa 1550-1798).

Thanks and regards

submitted by Ray Zammit

I've only run across the use of the number '916' in one instance, and that in conjunction with the letter H, ie '916H'. H is the first letter of the Finnish word for silver, Hopea, and '916H' is a Finnish designation for .935 silver, see Warman's Jewelry 2nd Edition, 'Marks on Metals' for a concise listing of many silver fineness marks.
'Tardy's International Hallmarks on Silver' is a great resource, and also includes the above info, and much much more, including information about the hallmarks used in Malta from about 1530 onwards. Both of the above volumes can be found available for sale online or at quality booksellers. Hope this helps!

information provided by Patrick Kapty

"980" Is 980 silver used at all anymore? If not when did its use end?..

submitted by Sande

Hi Sande--    I'm a silversmith here in the US and often work in Ag  .980 I know many people that do as well.  In the states it is most often referred to as --fine silver--.  At 98 or 99 percent it is considered about as pure as one can get.  The are many reasons for using it over sterling silver.  In southeast Asia it is even more common.  Most of the imports currently being mis-labeled as hill tribe silver are done in Ag .980,  The smiths I've met over there prefer it because it is softer and easier to stamp and forge than sterling.  It melts at a higher temp and so folks over there do not like it for casting however.  Its hotter melting temp is one of the reasons that enamellists often use it here in the states.  Due to its lesser copper content it tends NOT to tarnish as much or a quickly. 
information provided by Mark Kaplan 

copyright symbol and outstretched hand I picked up a pair of contemporary silver earrings at an estate sale this weekend. They look like a Lisa Jenks design, but are signed with the copyright symbol and an outstretched hand. Does anyone recognize this signature? 

submitted by Sharon 

bird or animal with it's mouth open, "830H", "A" with a bar across the top, crown stamp, "R7" There are a series of hallmarks on top of the bail, the 1st one is a bird or animal with its mouth open, the 2nd one is 830H, the 3rd one is an A with a bar across the top, the 4th one is a crown, he 5th one is R7. (I believe) it is 1970 Finnish, from the town of Turku, but wasn't able to come up with an artist.

submitted by Myrna in Tulsa

I haven't seen this particular design before, so can't be sure, but the 'bird or animal with it's mouth open' could be the maker's mark for Auran Kultaseppa which is an eagle head with it's beak slightly ajar. Otherwise, you're correct about the remaining hallmarks.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

sterling,then a capital A, then a half circle with spokes...much like a half sun.

This time I have from my collection a wonderful sterling narrow twisted bracelet.

It is heavy in weight for its slim contour and on one end where there is the space to put it on the wrist is: sterling,then a capital A, then a half circle with spokes...much like a half sun.

submitted by Karen Ferrandi

A "over "C" over an arrow (Example is a sterling leaf pin which looks like it's from the forties or fifties. The marking is an arrow with a C and A over it)

CA with an arrow through it is the mark for Carl Art, Inc. of Providence RI, which is the listing ABOVE the mark on page 57 of Rainwater. Rainwater can be confusing, but just remember that the marks always follow the names and info in that book. The Carl Art mark has been in use since 1937. You can find this info on page 38 of Maryanne Dolan's Collecting Rhinestones & Colored Jewelry, 3rd edition, where the info is UNDER the mark. The marks section of this book is the primary reason for owning it (forget the prices! ;-). The book is now in its 4th edition, published by Krause Publications, but I don't know if there are any additional marks.

information provided by Christie Romero

"A" (with an arrow coming out of the middle pointing toward the right), "STERLING, HANDMADE" I have a silver pendant that was recently bought at a thrift store for $8

It has a large (about 32X22mm) agate or jasper cab, bezel set on a solid silver sheet. It has a gap (2mm) and then a rim anout 2mm wide and 2mm tall going around but not touching the bezel.

On the back it is marked STERLING and HAND MADE all uppercase block letters (about 1mm tall). It also has an A with an arrow coming out of the middle horizontal line pointing to the right. The A is also uppercase block and is about 4mm tall and 4mm wide including the arrow.

submitted by April
"A" overlapping "K" within a circle
(German 800)
I need help identifying the maker of a piece of German 800 silver. The mark is an A overlapping a K, within a circle. The upright of the K runs through the A. I don't think it's
especially old. Ring any bells?

Also, I'd be grateful for suggestions on how to research a German mark in the future. I've had scant success using Google. Is there a German term that I should enter?

Kaija Aarikka (Finland)

 Regarding silver and wooden jewelry by Kaija Aarikka of Finland, I have  several questions.  Is there any distinction in dating between pieces  marked "Kaija Aarikka, Finland" and "Aarikka, Made in Finland"?  I  understand Aarikka made pieces in both Sterling and silverplate.  If a piece is unmarked as to silver content, should I assume it is silverplated?  How are her Sterling pieces marked?

 Finally, is Aarikka still making geometric silver and wooden bead  necklace and earring suites with white metal link chains that have hang tags?

submitted by Ramona

I suggest you contact Aarikka Oy in Helsinki for information on Aarrikka
hallmarks.  The email address is

information provided by Frederica

Aarikka jewellery is still produced today their are two shops in Helsinki that still sell the silver and wooden jewellery .Finland's jewellery is always stamped with a silver grade normally 925H,Aarikka also made a large amount of silver plated jewellery,which normally carries their name and Finland,this company also produce wooden giftware,hope this helps.

information provided by Vanessa Paterson. Retro Gallery 

ABRIACA Does anyone have information on this Mexican maker? (Abriaca) I have two of their pins, both mixed metals and beautifully done. But I rarely come across them and would love to know more about when they worked, who worked for them,
desing style, etc.

submitted by Evelyn Yallen 

Crowned A, duty mark for large items Paris, 1744-1750. Crowned E; Wardens mark for Paris 1745.

The third mark is the makers mark for Charles-Cesar Haudry, first registered in 1732.
These marks are completely puzzling. Even the experts at Christies and Skinner auctions were stumped. Someone out there is my only hope of identifying who made this. It is not marked either silverplate or sterling and it has very detailed work. thanks in advance for the investigative work!
submitted by Ann




Information provided by Prof. Dr. Ivan Milovic 

Although the above information about fantasy marks is generally correct, in this case Dr. Milovic is mistaken.The marks shown are; crowned A, duty mark for large items Paris, 1744-1750. Crowned E; Wardens mark for Paris 1745. The third mark is the 
makers mark for Charles-Cesar Haudry, first registered in 1732.

This is an unfortunate mistake as a rare and possibly valuable piece of silver has been condemned as a fake, and other readers, reading the original reply, may also assume that their items are fakes.

One thing that is always true of "fantasy marks" is that they will never add up, they will not give years that correspond or a maker that can be traced to those years, that is why they are know as "Fantasy marks"!

By the way the British "Britannia Standard" is 956/1000 not 950.

Hope all this helps somebody.

information provided by Derek Rogers, silver expert and lecturer.

Allan Adler


Allan Adler (1916-2002) was a master silversmith who worked in the Arts and Crafts tradition, but expressed himself in the simple, clean lines of modernism.  He had a shop on Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles, California and became popular among the rich and famous of Hollywood.

information provided by Marbeth Schon




(Examples are two separate pieces of Norwegian jewelry signed "AGE"--one attributed to ANNA GRETA EKER for PLUS APPLIED ARTS WORKSHOP. and another attributed to AGE CHRISTOFFERSON, also for PLUS.)

submitted by Susan Crosby

I just happened to remember that there was an example listed in Christie Romero's book, Warmans Jewelry 2, on page 256 by Erling Christoffersen. The mark noted there is "EC" for that designer. The mark "AGE" in conjunction with the big N and the + sign and "Norway Sterling 925S" is for Anna Greta Eker,

information provided by Patrick Kapty

Erling Christoffersen was the manager of the silver workshop at Plus and Anna Greta Eker who apprenticed at the shop was also his wife = Anna Greta Eker-Christoffersen. Both designed jewelry for the shop with the Norway Design and Plus trademark.

information provided by Ginny

"875" in a rectangle, "EA" in another, and a crowned woman in a circle. My book w/foreign hallmarks is packed away at the moment, so can somebody help me with the following hallmarks, found on a c.1930 silver-cased pocket comb w/an engraved Jugendstil-ish lily of the valley motif? The hallmarks are "875" in a rectangle, "EA" in another, and a crowned woman in a circle.

submitted by Paul Lemieux

Hector Aguilar

I hope someone can help with this question. I have a ring marked with Hector  Aquilar's late mark and Sterling, but no other marks, such as Taxco, Mexico,  etc. did he sign later pieces in this way? 

 submitted by Sharon
Peggy Ackerly


Peggy Ackerly, who apprenticed to Sam Kramer from 1943-1964, and continued gold and silversmithing until 2002, died at the age of 90 in 2011. In preparing her obituary (Epoch Times) I discovered that the Boston Museum of Fine Art and the Montreal Museum of Decorative Arts each had her work in their collections, but didn't know anything about her other than her connection to Sam Kramer. I have provided them with more information for their files. However, I would like to document her hallmark, and in the past, ran across a hallmark registry on the internet. If you can give me any direction in this regard, it would be greatly appreciated.
submitted by Gary Kilgore

link to the obituary:

MICHAEL ALBRECHT I was wondering if anyone knows anything about Michael Albrecht or can direct me to some info. He is English. Thanks
Alexandrite I have a ring with an alexandrite or simulated alexandrite.  The ring setting is unquestionably ca 1930s-1940s vintage based on style quality.  The stone changes from violet to a bluish color.  Is there a way I can determine if  it is real?  I thought real alexandrite was red &green, but some new  pieces on ebay claiming to be alexandrite are a similar color (though poorer quality).  The gem in my ring is very fine quality, leading me to believe it might be simulated.  But when were simulated alexandrites first used?

submitted by Paul

Paul and SF,

This is one of the few synthetic gemstones that can be i.d.'d by "holding it up to the phone" - or in this case, e-mail! - because of its change-of-color in incandescent vs. natural light. What you most likely have is "synthetic alexandrite-like corundum," which has been around since the early 20th century. I  don't yet have an exact date for the development of change-of-color corundum (synthetic blue sapphire - corundum - was patented in the U.S. in 1911), but  I'm working on it for an upcoming gemstone timeline lecture. If I can come up with anything definitive, I will post it here.You don't say what metal your stone is set into, but if the stone is large and of good quality, it's most likely not natural. Natural alexandrites of any substantial size and quality are EXTREMELY expensive. So any eBay claims should  be viewed with a skeptical eye - caveat emptor!

information provided by Christie Romero

I saw a short while back a question on Alexandrite. The IGS on Alexandrite as relates to this. "While determining the exact origin of a gem is a matter for professionals, here is a brief guideline. If the gem has good clarity, strong color change, reasonable size, and your grandmother was not exceptionally wealthy, it is most likely a synthetic."

Not all color change stones are Alexandrite. One stone that has a very dramatic contrast (in good samples) is color change garnet; sapphires can also be color change. If that piece was made in the 1930's it may or may not be worth it to have someone look at it. African color change garnet can go for (up to 1 ct) $80 to $1200/ct (over 1 ct) $120 to $6000/ct, US garnets $25 to $40/ct and $35 to $80/ct. Natural color change sapphire $120 to $3000/ct and $300 to $5000/ct. All of this is of course assuming that this is top grade to exceptional. There was a discussion on chrysoberyl, some (if not most) of what is sold on TV etc. is chrysoberyl (alexandrite is a form of chrysoberyl). This is unfortunate in that chrysoberyl is a nice (and expensive) stone all in itself, especially if there is a color shift. "As of late, (the past four years,) there has been an influx of color change chrysoberyl. Their origin has been from various areas of South America, East Africa, and Sri Lanka Their color change typically ranges from Green to yellow, Brownish red to purple, yellow Green to bluish green. Other combinations are occasionally seen as well. .These have been marketed as Alexandrite and commanded very high to moderate prices. While they have a dramatic color change, they should not be considered as alexandrite. To a gemological laboratory, there are strict standards of color change that have to be met and observed before a chrysoberyl can be graded as an Alexandrite. . Do not be fooled into purchasing a color change chrysoberyl in place of the alexandrite. (Many of these stones can be seen on various T.V. shopping networks.) The price should be your first clue; just a good grade of alexandrite, in a size range of 1-2 carats, can demand a $2,500 per carat wholesale. Let me add this gem of information, (excuse the pun.) A color change chrysoberyl is not a common stone and also demands a hefty price. They are a great addition to any gemstone collection, but do not pay for an alexandrite when you not getting one. " (IGS)

Chances are this is synthetic; but you never know. Moreover it may come as a surprise to some that just because it is a synthetic, meaning here lab grown dose not necessarily mean cheap, some would be surprised at what some of that rough (before cutting) goes for compared to the natural, it is not cut glass. The better grades are expensive to make.


(Example is a modernist collar/pendant which looks to be 1960s/1970s era. It is stamped "ALTON, F, three crowns in a 3 leaf clover (Swedish mark), S in a hexagon (for sterling?) and has a T8 year mark in a rectangle. It is also signed "Theunia" or "Theuria" in script.

submitted by Lynn LaFave

Can't tell you a lot about ALTON, other than that it is definitely the workshop where the jewelry items were made. I have seen a few pieces by this maker, and almost all of them had different designer marks. The F in a circle, according to Tardy's, is the town mark for Falkoping, Sweden. My piece is from 1973, yours is from 1945, if T8 is the correct date letter. (Maybe you read it wrong? T9 is 1969 which suits your circa date more closely.) "Theunia" or "Theuria" would probably be the designer.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

Alton is a Swedish workshop, but i believe the person asking the question about Theunia has read it wrong. I believe the mark in script is Theresia -which is Theresia Hvorslev, one of my absolute favourite designers. Her work has been exhibitied world wide. She takes a lot of inspiration from natural forms. And her work is fairly rare. She did work for Alton and Mema of Sweden.

information provided by Rachel White

"Ray Amaro"  I'm wondering if someone would be able to help me ID 2 artist from the Southwest. I have a huge bracelet, pendant and ring in gold over sterling signed Ray Amaro in script, 70's or newer.

submitted by Sheila Pamfilof

 David-Andersen, Norway


early mark--not sure of dates

1925-  present

This old spoon is marked 830S (makers mark) N.M. 1113 (or 1118).  I understand that NM stands for Norsk Mønster meaning a Norwegian patent. Is the number after a patent mark? Is there a way to check? The makers mark looks familiar but I haven't found info on that either.

submitted by Sue Sinclair

The mark is a David Andersen mark.

information provided by Pat Talbott
"industrial Argentina" This first piece is a really great sterling neckring with an enamelled pendant and matching ring. Never seen this mark before "industrial Argentina, with a 925 in a triangle"

submitted by Jackie Weeks

"M. Arias"

"M. Arias was Miguel Arias who was one of Margots top enamelists. When Margot went out of business and gave her molds to her workers, he acquired many of her enamel designs. So, these pieces should all be from Margot's original design molds, made by the same enamelist that made her works."

information provided by Sheila Pamfiloff (and Sigi Pineda)

Per my interview with Sigi Pineda, he stated that Miguel Arias (mark M Arias) was a top notch enamelist that worked for Margot.

I have seen many of his Margot design works and they have generally been virtually undistinguishable from the actual Margots.

The enamel designs I recall seeing by him are:

# 5357 swirls
# 5372, Xs, both large and small
# 5384, leafy swirls
# 5406, leaves
# 5442 Greek key
# 5554 snake set

I don't know how long he worked on his own, but the pieces I've had/seen were with the eagle quinto and not with the later TX-##.

Overall, I feel his enameling is top notch.

information provided by Sheila Pamfiloff

Jens Poul Asby
"JA" (in a shield)
I recently acquired a pair of very large rings with the mark for Jens Poul Asby of Frederiksberg, Denmark, and I'm wondering if anyone has any biographical information on this maker??? I already know that this maker was in Holte, Denmark area from 1960 - 1970, and then in Frederiksberg from 1970 to at least 1993. The larger ring is about 2-3/4" long by 2" wide at top. The smaller ring is 1-1/2" by 1-3/8".

submitted by Patrick Kapty

"A.SCH Norway Sterling .925" Does anyone recognize this mark:  A.SCH Norway Sterling .925 ? The back of the pin and clipback earrings appear to be goldwashed sterling and all 3 pieces bear the same mark.

submitted by Sheryl

A. Sch. is the mark of Albert Scharning A/S, Molde

information provided by Mrs. Kit Froebel

"STERLING AVEDON 1975" (Example is a a piece of jewelry marked in block letters "STERLING AVEDON 1975" with a copyright "c".)

submitted by Sharon Hepburn

"J A" on either side of a
three-stemmed candelabra
(Example is a tie tack shaped like a crown marked "STERLING and J A on either side of a three pronged candelabra) .

The mark is for JAMES AVERY and can be found on page 30 of  AMERICAN JEWELRY MANUFACTURERS by DOROTHY RAINWATER.

information provided by Susan



(Example is a bracelet in the clasp style. It is stamped sterling and the initials N.A. This bracelet was bought at a high end Canadian shop around 1985. N.A. is thought to be a Canadian designer from Montreal. The bracelet is large and chunky, and bright and colourful since it is inlaid w/ "slabs" of semi precious stones. There is one large center panel, 1 set of smaller side panels in a geometric design. Malachite is the featured stone in the panels. Other stones include lapis, carnelian (or something that gives a reddish hue}, mother/pearl, black onyx.)

submitted by Georgina Crawford

"THA and HAI"
I found a cute bracelet at an estate sale, but I know nothing about markings. It is made up of silver bars and alternating "x"s It is marked 925 which I know is silver. It also has a "THA" on the back of one x and "HAI" on another. If anyone could give me some insight on these markings, it would be greatly appreciated.

submitted by Lynda
"TYA 925S" I have been going through all my books trying to find the maker of a brooch but so far without luck. The maker's mark is NA with a line over the top of both letters followed by 925 S. The NA letters are in a very Art Nouveau style. The brooch design is a flower with five petals. The stem and backs of the petals are a dark oxized silver colour. The front
of the petals are done in a mother of pearl coloured enamel.

According to Fred Rezazadeh in his book "Collectible Silver Jewelry," that mark is for Andersen & Scheinpflug, a company founded in Oslo "at least in the early 1940s." They made high quality enamel jewelry and "unlike many other Norwegian enamel jewelry pieces of the same period (40s & 50s) which emphasized floral designs, modern and stylized geometric motifs are more prevalent among Andersen and Scheinpflug's enamel jewelry." The mark is actually 'TYA"

information provided by Marbeth Schon
"EB 835"

Anyone ever seen the mark "EB 835". This is on an arts and crafts sterling and chrysophase ring I just picked up.

submitted by Jackie Weeks

"KB" (in a box)
I have a question about a 1949 Kenneth Begay/White-Hogan shop piece I just bought. The item is actually not a piece of jewelry, but a gravy ladle that is about 7" long. It has the White-Hogan Shop mark, the KB in a box, as well as "Sterling," "Handmade Original Design," and a date, "'49" engraved on the back near the other marks. the design is a fairly simple one. My question is, did Kenneth Begay (or other White-Hogan makers for that matter) produce much flatware (such as this piece)? Is it as popular with collectors as their jewelry? Finally, does anybody know if entire sets of flatware were produced, or did they just produce an occasional piece, such as this ladle?

submitted by Paul Lemieux

The White Hogan has been in business for 60 years. Over this time we have hired and trained  many outstanding artists. Kenneth  Begay and Allen Kee were our first two employees in May 1946. Over the years we made a lot of flatware and hollow ware. One year we made 36 place settings of flatware, each with 5 or 6 pcs. That is a lot of knives and forks when its all hand made. I'm always interested in purchasing back our older pcs.

 information provided by Jon Bonnell Owner of The White Hogan

Carolyn Morris Bach
(usually seen in script)

Carolyn Morris Bach is a graduate of the Rhode Island School of Design and her work is in prestigious museums including the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts; the Museum of Arts and Design, New York, New York ; the Fuller Craft Museum, Brockton, Massachusetts; and the Racine Art Museum, Racine, Wisconsin

Her work is widely collected both in America and abroad, and recognized by several organizations with awards of merit from: Smithsonian Institution, American Craft Museum, Philadelphia Museum of Art (Women's Committee) and a National Endowment for The Arts grant. Most recently, a Carolyn Morris Bach brooch was included in the book by Madeline Albright,
Read My Pins. Brooches from her personal collection.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Lilyan Bachrach

Lilyan Bachrach is a remarkable, versatile enamellist whose oeuvre includes jewelry, wall pieces, plates, bowls, mezuzahs, and switch plates. Her work flows easily between beautiful floral and abstract designs; she is equally adept at both. She has been enameling for over fifty years, studying with the "greats" such as Kenneth Bates and Doris Hall.

Since 1970 her Bachrach Art Enamels have been exhibited in museums and galleries across the United States.  Her commission work has ranged from cloisonné pins to architectural panels and religious objects.

Lilyan Bachrach is also an author; her first, very successful book on enameling was titled Enameling with Professionals. She has just published a new, expanded edition of her first book titled, Contemporary Enameliing Art & Techniques that discusses the techniques and materials for using vitreous enamels and has "how I work" chapters by over 30 enamel artists who share their secrets of working with the techniques of cloisonné, plique--a- jour, champlevé, etc. There are photographs of the work of over 55 individual contemporary enamelists.

Bachrach is also one of the featured jewelers in my book, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement."

Read Lilyan's biography at
Order her new book at

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Marjorie Baer "SF"  I have a pair of engraved silver look clip-on earrings marked BAER with SF copyright (c in a circle) below.  The earrings are quite large (3-1/16" by 1-7/8"), which includes the dangle.  They look like tarnished silver but there is no mark to indicate if they contain any silver.  I found a listing on eBay for a bracelet marked BAER, S.F. that was supposedly designed for the Nash Bridges Movie.  I would like to know more about the jewelry manufacturer and if they are still in existance, designers for movies, or if they design fine jewelry and/or costume jewelry. 

submitted by  Dorothy 

I believe that the designer of your earrings is Marjorie Baer, San Francisco. I would also like to know more about her and the jewelry she designed. I have had several pieces by this designer of mixed metals which I believe were made in the 1970s and sold at department stores such as Neiman Marcus.
Hopefully someone else knows more.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

After I read your email I looked on google search and found a site about Marjorie Baer ( That has her address and a small personal profile you might find interesting.  The address for Marjorie Baer Assecories, Inc (Erin Walters) 2660 Harrison St. San Francisco 94110 there is also a phone number if you want it.  I found another site that shows some of her belts that are priced from $65 to $120.00 (weaves of linen, jute, etc with buckles).  I think I will contact the Marjorie Baer Accessories and see if they can give me more info and a possible date on the earrings.

information provided by Dorothy


Harold Balazs (b. 1928) is a Mead, Washington sculptor and enamellist.   He received a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from Washington State University in 1951 and has worked in many different media throughout his career including sculpture, jewelry, furniture, toys, etc.  He is a well-known enamellist whose work is scheduled to be shown in a monograph about his life's work, published by the University of Washington Press. (from )

information provided by Marbeth Schon


I have an aluminum cuff that is signed  "BALLY"  The design is highly unusual and interesting and I thought  it might be by Boris Bally, but do not know his mark. 

submitted by Marbeth Schon

Boris is a member of the Society of American Silversmiths and I believe Rainwater has included marks of the members in her latest edition of American Silver Manufacturers.

Boris says he marks his work like your mark indicates.  I am sending him an image of your cuff to see if he recognizes it.

information provided by Fred Zweig

(ca. 1987) I also LOVE that bracelet and remember it actually has two annodized aluminum cyclinders, cold- connected with a silver bar- the idea was sort of a 'clamp' it eventually led up to the piece 'arachnid' which the MAD has in the perm collection..and on to the Constrictor, etc..

information provided by Boris Bally

Bat raised "930/1000" profile of a face Hi Folks I have another Makers Mark ID Info
The piece is Sterling Enamel with a Basket on the front the back is Marked with a Bat Raised I think this is the Maker Then 930/1000 Silver content and then the 2 marks very tiny one is a Profile of a Face looks like they are wearing a Laurel Wreath facing Right...with a small Letter? Possibly A or the number 4 then Last is a square hallmark with the letter A in it. Any Ideas as to Maker....looks 1920's-1930's. Thank you

submitted by Roger

Kenneth Bates

Master enamellist Kenneth Bates (1904 - 1994), has been known as the "Dean of American Enameling" ever since he was described as such in a 1967 issue of Ceramics Monthly.  Bates taught for many years at the Cleveland School of Art and influenced a great number of artist/enamelists  through his work, his teaching, and his books.

In the introduction to his book, "Enameling Principles and Practice," Bates said that he felt a kind of "awesome enchantment" with enamels. "This feeling of ....enchantment continued for Bates throughout a career in enameling that spanned more than sixty years."

Bates knowledge of horticulture--his "understanding of nature and flowers--[that] informed the richly patterned, brilliantly colored enamels he produced throughout his life" is evidenced in his extraordinary floral themes."

Information taken directly from "Painting with Fire, Masters of Enameling in America, 1930 - 1980" by Bernard N. Jazzar and Harold B. Nelson.  See MODERN SILVER magazine review:

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Last is a Pin signed Beau I know about then but I thought the style was
something I had read about Neat Modernist Look!

submitted by Roger Erickson
"Los Ballesteros, Taxco"

I have a set consisting of a necklace, cuff bracelet and earrings with a hallmark that I can only make out a few of the words. It is a circle in side of which there looks like a fancy B. Around that the words are written and I make out Los Ballesteros and Taxco . Under that is Hecho en Mexico and the silver content mark 925. I understand that this was one of the many silver designers in that famous region but could not find any more info. The design is a pre-columbian motif made up of square panels each with a differrent symbol inside made of silver raised on a black background. It belonged to my Grandmother who may have purchased it in the 40's or 50's.

submitted by Helena Goldsmith



Southwest-based artist TRINA BADARAK, worked in jewelry in the 1980s. She has since moved on to work in other media and hasn't made jewelry for sale in many years.

information provided by Martha Trachtenberg

"BAUR" or "BAURING" Hi everyone,   I was wondering if anyone had info on 2 makers--one is a arts & crafts / modernist leaf & berry pin marked Baur SterlING     Well roughly it look like that so unsure
if the name is BAUR or BAURING the ING is Big so I think maybe is was meant for both words  or not.

Bauring was a company in the 1930's started by a man name Baur. Baur designed and made the jewelry. his company was financed by a guy name Ring -- also the company accountant. He died around 1943. After he died the mark became BaurING -- capitalized for Ring. Hope that helps!

information provided by Anna (Walczyk) Meriwether

PS my grandfather made jewelry for Bauring before he went off to war and then when he came back until about 1949

"BELMAN SILVER". (Example is a bracelet that looks almost deco, and is marked "BELMAN SILVER".

submitted by Gail


 Mark for Ruth Berridge

information provided by Alisa Crawford 

"BERRAK, 925" (Example is a ring with the name BERRAK, written in block capital letters , very Scandinavian looking, with a wonderful royal blue stone set into a huge curved oval "plate". On the inside it says only BERRAK and 925. The stone is probably chalcedony, a FABULOUS royal blue)

submitted by. Rosalie Isaacs

"C. BENEDICT 925S DENMARK" (Example is a cool mod pin signed C.BENEDICT 925S DENMARK.)

submitted by Ellen from Santa Cruz

"Gallen Benson, 925" (Example is a pair of earrings, very heavy and beautifully designed with a matt enamel on one side of the earring. The mark on the back is "Gallen Benson, 925".

submitted by Jackie Weeks

Frans Bergmann (on enamel)

Franz W. Bergmann (1898-1977) started life in Austria where, after serving in World War II, he studied art at the National Academy of Art in Vienna.  By 1924, he was exhibiting in Vienna and Stockholm. By 1929, he was living in the United States--New York, Chicago and eventually and finally, San Francisco where he became a celebrated artist, exhibiting at the Golden Gate International Exhibition in 1939.  Bergmann also worked in jewelry, pottery and enamels.  An accident in 1952 that left him with two broken legs, led him to concentrate on enamels.  By 1959 he was considered on of the "leading enamel artists", exhibiting in the seminal exhibition, "Enamels" at the the Museum of Contemporary Crafts in New York.

Information taken directly from
"Painting with Fire, Masters of Enameling in America, 1930 - 1980" by Bernard N. Jazzar and Harold B. Nelson. See MODERN SILVER magazine review:

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Bessani (may only work in 14k)  
"Bezalel" (Example is a sterling pin/pendant with "Bezalel" written on the back in Hebrew.)

submitted by Adrienne Shivers

A Rabbi told us of a school in Palestine pre 1947 by that name. The school was either a jewelry school or produced some great hand crafted jewelry from a part of the school.The school may still be in existence today. I thought the name was spelled Belzalel but perhaps the t and the l looked alike.

information provided by Lonny Rosen

Bezalel was a school for arts and crafts in Jerusalem that was founded by Boris Schaatz in the early part of the 20th century. I have seen tiles, jewelry and ceremonial paraphernalia, and carpets. I have not found that the market for anything other than carpets was very strong, although I would assume pre-WWII ceremonial accoutrements would be. There is a lot of information on the school relative to its carpet production in a book titled Jewish Carpets.

information provided by Lewis Bobrick

"Monnet Bijoux" I just purchased this most wonderful 3 piece set. All three pieces are sterling and I have the original box which is marked Monnet Bijoux as well as the pieces being marked "Monnet Bioux, Sterling". Each piece has a center piece of tigerseye and are so well made and heavy. Here's the url to view three different pictures.

submitted by Jackie Weeks
Birmingham Silver Company
(large crown, "B" and "S" and also a crossed "key" mark)
Just purchased a 7 piece silver service set (including tray)--it appears to
be 50+ years old---is plate--and has the following markings on each peice---
1. Crown--larger than the other 3 markings
2. Scripted letter that appears to be a C or a G
3. Scripted letter that is an S
4. Crossed Keys
The markings are in the above order---
The service is quiet elegant and in good condtion

submitted by Bill


Your pieces could have been made by the Birmingham Silver Company which previously was the Goldfeder Silverware Co.  They made silverplate and their
mark was a large crown and a "B" and "S" They also used a crossed key mark. According to "Rainwater's book Encyclopedia of American Silver Manufacturers," they are still in business in New York.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"P.Bis, Sterling, Handmade,
Denmark, 6"

Palle Bisgaard

(Example is a heavy sterling neckring and pendant from Denmark The marks are: P. Bis, Sterling, Handmade, Denmark, and the number 6.

submitted by Jackie Weeks

I currently have a pair of mid 20th century blue and pink abalone clip earrings set in sterling silver marked in blocked lettering P. BIS, STERLING, DENMARK, HANDMADE followed by the number 12.  This is the mark of Palle Bisgaard, a “highly sought and acclaimed” Danish modernist who opened his workshop in the 1950s in Kirke Hyllinge, a hamlet outside Roskilde, Denmark.  All of the pieces I have seen have been beautifully made of abalone shell set in sterling silver.  Here is a link to where I found this information:

information provided by Rose Griesmeyer



Weckstrom, "BW" mark--sometimes also marked "BJORN"

Hello all, I was the luckiest duck to find a great pendant necklace with handmade chain in an auction lot today. I will never be able to photo the marks, but they are these:

Top row is the Lapponia symbol,925H, then a crown and another hallmark that is almost crown shaped, then T9,  Next row says Sterling Finland The bottom row says Lapponia BJORN.

Am I correct that this is Bjorn Weckstrom? An idea on dating? I am setting up the camera now. I think it is a stylized sailboat, but I may be wrong. A very substantial Moderne casting.

submitted by beegee

Thos pendant is part of the space silver range that Bjorn designed back in 1968.All of Bjorns works do have names and yours is called O2x. A book will be printed in about 2 years time with all the names and dates these items were made.

information provided by Vanessa Paterson 

Black, Starr & Gorham

A bit more information----I have an ad from Vogue 1941 for Black, Starr & Gorham--it was located on 5th Ave. at 48th St in NY--there was also a location in East Orange (which I assume is New Jersey) have another ad from Harper's Bazaar in 1941 for Spaulding-Gorham in the Drake [hotel] in Chicago.

information provided by Pat Seal 

Black, Starr & Gorham was on Fifth Avenue, but was around later than the Depression. The turn of the century Tiffany competitor, much loved by the very rich, was Black, Starr, Frost & Gorham.

information provided by Jane Viney Ridge


 "R B" with arrow & Co.
R. Blackington & Company
I have acquired a wonderful & very substantial deco style cigarette case marked with the R Blackington & Company trademark, a North Attelboro business. It is the R, the B with arrow & Co. It also has a number on it. But, most fascinating is the inscription which is quite long, mentions Christmas and is undated. It refers to "cases worked together. It appears to have been a gift from the Assistant Chief, Waterbury Division, American Protective League. Any clues would be appreciated.

submitted by Sande

This is from a Seattle based website, but at least it explains a little about the American Protective League -- interesting!

The Seattle Minute Men was a division of the American Protective League which operated under the jurisdiction of the Department of Justice during the early 1900’s. It was a volunteer spy organization responsible for gathering and reporting information regarding all violations of war and espionage acts and proclamations. In Seattle it played an important role by investigating reports of T actions of the I.W.W. before, during and after the Seattle General Strike of 1919. The first recorded meeting of the Minute Men took place in 1917 at the Seattle home of William J. Alvay, but following this initial meeting, they were often held at a Public School near Ravenna.

information provided by Marbeth Schon


Has anybody seen a mark of 'fhb' in lower case on American Studio jewelry?  I could not trace this maker.  The only FB I found reference to was Franz Bergmann. 

submitted by Paul

fhb is the mark for Fances Holmes Boothby who worked in the 1950s. She taught jewelry making in Troy, New York and also in Vermont. She exhibited at the Walker in Minneapolis in 1955.  Her work was mainly done in sterling silver, sometimes with ebony and/or stones, though she did work in gold, plastics, and brass. She is known for her small, whimsical "bird" brooches with wire legs.

Boothby will be discussed in my upcoming book for Schiffer, "Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement."

information provided by Marbeth Schon

FHB is the marking of Frances Holmes Boothby.  All her pieces are hand made.
She had no apprentices.  She produced pieces from the 50's to the mid 80's
in upstate, NY & Weston, VT.  She retired to Sedona, AZ & took up quilting.
She died, I believe, in Jan, 2001, or possibly 2000.

information provided by Kate Staman

Porter Blanchard
Porter Blanchard (1886 – 1973) was an American silversmith living and working in Pacoima, California in the United States. He is considered to be part of the Arts and Crafts Movement. His daughter, Alice, married Lewis Wise who conducted business as Porter Blanchard Silversmiths (Calabasas, California). After 1955, all of Porter Blanchard flatware was made at the Calabasas shop, while the holloware was made at his Pacoima home. Many of his papers including photographs of his shop are collected in the Archives of American Art at the Smithsonian Institution. His daughter, Becca, married Allan Adler, born 1916 of Los Angeles, who continued designing as a silversmith in that tradition.

information from

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Leslie Block  
Hogan Bolas

Here's a question about an American studio earrings & brooch set I picked up today. It's not silver, but brass & copper. All pieces are signed "Hogan Bolas". Each piece is a brass rectangle with copper wire applied to it. Any ideas about Hogan Bolas? The set looks to be c. 1950s. 

Hogan & Bolas has been making "Handcrafted" jewelry
in Providence, Rhode Island for over forty years. Started by Robert Hogan and Elizabeth Bolas -Rhode Island School of Design students - the company produced jewelry designs in copper and bronze. The artists also experimented, successfully, with various enameling techniques. Pieces were produced using traditional metalworking, combining hand and machine work.

Over the years, the company broadened its line to include Sterling Silver. in addition, themes, such as Nautical/Sea Life have been added to the line.

Although the styling has changed over the years, Hogan & Bolas continues to produce fine, "Handcrafted" pieces in the tradition of the original founders. Since 1991, my family and I have operated Hogan & Bolas. We strive to provide you with our classic styling, an exchange program and a lifetime warranty. (from

information provided by Susan in California

BOLIDENSILVER I purchased a pie/cake server at an estate sale.  I was able to identify the Swedish Triple Crown Stamp, the 830 silver or higher mark and the 1946 mark.

Can someone help me with the other two

1st Mark - COP
2nd Mark - Swedish Triple Crown Stamp
3rd Mark - The S in a Hexagon
4th Mark - Not sure if it's a letter or symbol?????
5th Mark - U8

Right next to it it's marked - BOLIDENSILVER

Borrensen & Lassen

Borresen & Lassen, Hellerup Denmark 1950s-1960s.

information provided by Marbeth Schon


"E. Borsum" (Example is a silver bowl marked E. Borsum, sterling. It is a match to a smaller Kalo bowl. My husband's grandfather lived near the Kalo shop. I believe that Borsum is a Norwegian name.)

submitted by Sue Sinclair

"S. BORUP, 925S, DENMARK" heavy hand beaten moderne er's marked :S.BORUP 925S DENMARK

submitted by Heather

S. Borup is for Soren Borup, who worked in Denmark in the 1960s

information provided by Marbeth Schon


"Brd. B."
I am looking for info about Danish mark Ela  which I undestand is for Egon Lauridsen and the mark Brb. B. The marks are in silver and enamel pins which were recently offered to me.

submitted by Fabiana
JH Breakell

 JH Breakell of Rhode Island
Irena Brynner

Irena Brynner, (1917 - 2002)  was a skilled sculptor, painter, musician and, most importantly, one of the most celebrated American jewelers of the mid 20th century.  She came to the United States in 1946, to San Francisco where she first made jeweler and began showing her work at the San Francisco Open Air Art Festivals and nationally in exhibits such as  "Contemporary Jewelry" at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1955.

In 1957 Brynner set up a studio and gallery in New York City where she soon became recognized through articles in major craft magazines and a one-woman exhibit at the Museum of Contemporary Crafts.  When she died, in 2002 her work was in museums throughout the world including the Smithsonian, the Louvre and the Hermitage.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

British Hallmarks (Birmingham)
I recently bought a lovely sterling hinged cuff. It has hallmarks that I assumed were British. It has an anchor, the walking lion, --but instead of a letter date mark--it has the number 2. It is marked twice with the lion and the number 2. I would really appreciate any information about it, especially maker, country, and age.

Thank you for looking,

submitted by Pat Seal

Hi Patsy, nice bracelet! The 2 is actually a stylized q and the bracelet is, Birminham, Sterling, and dates 1965 from Jackson's book of Hallmarks.

information provided by Joanne


Bovano, Cheshire CT

Before the Cheshire CT firm of Bovano started in 1953, founded by John Bonsignor, Gene Van Leight and Warren Npden, a man named Brower was doing excellent enamel work in Cheshire. He sold his business to the three men who would rename the business Bovano in 1953.

information from

"Bruce" (in script) Does anybody know anything about a signature "Bruce" (stamped in script) on marked sterling jewelry?  I feel I may have heard the name before, but can't place it.

submitted by Paul

large crown and "B" and "S"


Just purchased a 7 piece silver service set (including tray)--it appears to be 50+ years old---is plate--and has the following markings on each peice---
1. Crown--larger than the other 3 markings
2. Scripted letter that appears to be a C or a G
3. Scripted letter that is an S
4. Crossed Keys
The markings are in the above order---
The service is quiet elegant and in good condition--
Can any one help idenify it through these markings?

submitted by Bill
Birmingham Silver Company
Your pieces could have been made by the Birmingham Silver Company which previously was the Goldfeder Silverware Co.  They made silverplate and their mark was a large crown and a "B" and "S" They also used a crossed key mark. According to "Rainwater's book Encyclopedia of American Silver Manufacturers," they are still in business in New York.

information provided by Marbeth Schon


"M. BUFFET" (Example is a bracelet with four chunky links ( 1.5" squares) with a winged griffin-type figure on each. All four links are the same size. In the picture, the outer two links are simply "falling away" from the camera. The mark appears to read "M. BUFFET". (The last letter looks like a "D" as first, but with closer examination, one can see that the outer line is simply a line from the maker's stamp striking the surface.)

submitted by Lisa Youel

"Burkee" or "Durkee"


(Example is a modern abstract sterling silver necklace with a free-swinging center piece)  pic

submitted by Lonny Rosen

I found examples of jewelry by IRVIN AND BONNIE BURKEE shown on page 96 of Neumann's "the design and creation of jewelry" revised edition, 1975. it doesn't give any other details about them.

information provided by Susan Crosby

Irvin and Bonnie Burkee are a husband and wife team who have been creating jewelry together since the late 1940s.  They produced one-of-a-kind as well as limited production designs that were successfully marketed through various craft galleries throughout the U.S.  Read more about the Burkees in my book, "Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement."

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"J B" (on either side of a pine tree)
Mark for J.B. Hamlin
(Example is a brooch which I purchased as a Jules Brenner, but have not been able to find an example of this mark which is a "J" and a "B" on either side of a small pine tree.  The brooch is beautiful with a delicate modern design. If it is by Brenner it is early, perhaps 1940s or early 50s.  The brooch is a mustard colored bubbly enamel over silver, also a spot of emerald green enamel in the curlicue, approximately 1-1/4" wide, safety catch. )

submitted by Marbeth Schon

This mark is for J.B. Hamlin. A piece showed up on Ebay signed "J.B. HAMLIN" with the same pine tree mark.  It was a sterling pin in a boomerang shape with an free spinning spherical green stone within an "eye-type" opening. Thanks to Fred Doloresco for finding the auction.  So far I have been able to find no other information regarding J.B. Hamlin.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Dorothy Rainwater lists James B. Hamlin as a pewterer in North Bridgton, Maine as of 1975. Obviously, Mr. Hamlin also worked in sterling as we found this nice butter spreader with his mark at the Pier Shows earlier this month. Just wanted to share the mark with you. The pine trees seem very appropriate for Maine.

I own a catalogue of contemporary silver shown at the Brooklyn Museum in 1937. It was from the estate of Mr. Hamlin and in it he writes that he worked in the workshop of Laurits Christian Eichner in Blumfield, NJ during 1936 to 1941. Does anyone have further information on this craftsman?

information from SMP silver salon forum and Fred Zweig

"VB (underlined)925S"

(Example is a silver brooch. The person I acquired it from says a relative bought it in Scandinavian maybe 30 years ago and it was to commemorate something big, but can't remember what, it looks like a King and his court to me. It measures 2+1/2 X 1+3/4 and the hallmark simply says VB (underlined) and 925S, no country of origin hallmarks etc.)

submitted by Karen Foggin

VB is for Volmar Bahner & co of Copenhagen Denmark.

information provided by Vanessa Paterson

Vanessa has ID'ed Volmer Bahner, and I can tell you that the pin depicts a scene from Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale "The Emperor's New Clothes". This is the famous walk through town where a little boy finally points out the truth...that the Emperor's new clothes are imaginary, and that he is naked.

information provided by Annette, Oakland, CA

"C" (with profile of Lion's head inside) Hello again - I have a second question (of course) - I have found this mark on a  few items of good quality silver jewelry - twice I have seen it on Danecraft pieces, and a  couple of times on other sterling silver items with no maker's mark.

The mark is a capital C, and inside the C is the profile of a lion's head.

The only place I have been able to find this mark is in Tardy, and he claims it is the Canadian Silver Fineness mark - which I find hard to believe.  I've never heard of a Canadian silver fineness mark, and if it is, what is it doing on Danecraft pieces?

submittec by Lis Bianco 

"Canada in fact does have a Standard Mark for sterling silver items.They are not always marked with the C and Lion's head.  I am not certain why the Dancraft items were marked with this standard unless it was a requirement for import.

information provided by Fred Rezazadeh

Sadie Calvin, Navajo
Sadie Calvin is a Navajo jewelry artist who was active from 1950s-70s and possibly later. I have beautiful cuff by her with turquoise and coral.  Her jewelry was very well designed and of fine quality.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Toni Catanzaro

Josephine and Antoinette Catanzaro were sisters from a large Sicilian family from Buffalo, New York.  In the 1950s, through a course in jewelry making, the sisters discovered a lifetime passion for metalworking. In 1959, they opened a shop called The house of Crafts in Buffalo where they had an onsite studio for creating their own pieces in silver and gold.  they exhibited their work, widely, in the U.S. and sold through retail craft outlets in New York and Boston.

Information about the Josephine and Antoinette Catanzaro and photographs of their work can be found in  Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and their work was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Virgil Cantini

Virgil Cantini was born in Italy in 1919 and came to the US in 1930. He received his Master's Degree from the University of Pittsburgh where he became a Professor in the Henry Frick Fine Arts Department. In Time Magazine’s 1953 Poll he was named as one of the "Hundred Leaders of Tomorrow." He received numerous awards and prizes for his enamel work, many in the form of large-scale enamel panels and sculptures. (information from The Design and Creation of Jewelry by Robert von Neumann.)

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Casa Prieto

Casa Prieto was a silver manufacturer based in Mexico City in the mid 20th century.

From "The Little Book of Mexican Silver Trade and Hallmarks" by Bille Hougart

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"CAT" Here's an interesting Mexican hallmark. I am wondering if anyone recognizes it or has been just as stumped as me. Although rare, I have seen this mark several times, always high quality sterling pieces, pre-eagle assay, and every piece I've seen with this mark is made with amethyst stones. I have "deciphered" the very artistic mark to be CAT
and have speculated that it could be the mark of Carlos Acosta who ran a store in the important Taxco years called the California, although I have never been able to find anything indepth about him outside of a list of stores and names and is just speculation on my part. This one is definitely at the very top of my list for Mexican mystery marks, along with AE in a heart.

submitted by Cheron
cat(lion) looking back tail 
down, some exotic bird, and a mark that I cannot describe
I have just purchased this incredible cuff bracelet. It weighs 110 grams! I have no idea if it is american, indian, or what.It is covered with hallmarks on each side, a hallmark on the center chain, and hallmarks on the , all of which are on the front side of the bracelet. It appears to have 2 touch marks on the inside of the cuff, but I cannot read them. The first 2 photos show the hallmarks on the end cuffs- it appears to be a cat(lion) looking back tail down, some exotic bird, and a mark that I cannot describe The craftmanship and design are excellent. 

submitted by Cindy Wile

 This is an Egyptian silver cuff bracelet that was fashionable in 
the 80's. As for the hallmarks you mentioned, those are a Cat and the bird is Horus the the ancient Egyptian falcon God. Sometimes you will find a Lotus instead of the falcon. The cat stamp was used around 40 years ago here. The more recent hallmarks are the Lotus and sometimes just a number indicating the percentage of silver ( A zero in arabic is a DOT so that might be what you are refering to when You said a '.' sign). Unfortunatly I could not read the hallmark on your pictures as they were un clear.

This paritcular design of bracelet is no longer being made though we still find it and even older designs in old antique shops and bazars in Khan El Khalili in Egypt.

By the way, it is a typical Egyptian thing to stamp/hallmark an item on its front face besides other parts.

information provided by  Randa.

Milton Cavagnaro

Milton Cavagnaro (1913-1993) was a California jeweler whose work is distinctive in it's skillful use of silver in combination with natural materials such as wood, bone, and shell.  He made only one-of-a-kind pieces. 

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"c c" (in triangles) The other mark is two lower case "c's" in triangles. 

submitted by Rosalie Isaacs

The C& C mark is Clark and Coombs--Providence, RI --according to Rainwater's book.

information provided by Pat Seal 

three wide squared off almost "C's" in somewhat of a triangle I have a very unusual heavy 3" by 2" rounded pendant that looks like something Miro might have done.  The bezel of this strange pendant swivels and is also shaped like a Henry Moore head.  It is carved cast silver pear shaped pod (pomegranite form) with two openings.  Inside the oval windows there are objects that look like one a dove of peace and the other something like a Henry Moore sculpture of a figure. It is big enough to be an ornament on a Christmas tree but really it is an avant garde pendant.  The mark that is on it looks like three wide squared off almost C's in somewhat of a triangle. Can anyone help?

submitted by Joyce Ziman
"cCc, Taxco, Sterling, Alpaca" I have an eagle three mark on a pair of cufflinks wood with silver bars, they also have a circle stamp with cCc in it or possibly cGc surrounded by the words taxco sterling. Also Alpaca is stamped on the clip.

submitted by Rachel

Pepe Cerroblanco followed his inherited tradition and studying jewelry design at Italy. Though he gave a twist of contemporaneously and daring style. Dramatic, clean, and architectural lines can be appreciated on his designs. His pieces had been displayed at Saks Fifth Avenue, Bloomingdales at New York, and in prestige galleries. By this path he has become a famous mexican designer.


submitted by Marbeth Schon

Chalice mark Hi, I lurk here and try to learn.  I just uncovered some old family pieces, and there are a couple I have not been able to ID.    The most interesting is a very large brooch, looks like a bow, fillagree, set with about 5mm stones, gaudy colors,although they look much newer than the piece does. I believe it is sterling, but it doesn't say so. It cleans up like sterling.Very soft tho. The stones are 2 red,  2 green, 1 pink and 2 blue,they are cut in brilliant, and placed in funny ways, not in a designer fashion, if you know what I mean. The mark is a chalice, with some letters, but the letters are too worn to see.  Anybody out there seen this?  It looks more functional than most jewelry.My Grandmother said it was from her Mother. Thanks ahead
of time. 

submitted by  Deb

The chalice mark is the mark of New England Glass Works.  The letters inside the chalice are NE.  New England Glass Works closed during the 20's.  Hope this helps!

information provided by  Nancy Sotelo from Minnesota.

Julian Chavez


Julian Chavez is a Zuni silversmith.  I would love to know more!

information provided by Marbeth Schon


Maxwell Chayat


Maxwell Chayat (1909 - 1982) was born in Paris, but came to the United States as a child during World War I. His work was prominent in private collections and synagogues in Syracuse. His sculpture ''The Sentinel'' stands outside Crouse College on the Syracuse University campus. His work has been shown at the Smithsonian Institution, Cooper Union, the Jewish Museum of New York and the Newark Museum.

From  Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"Cheo" (Chea? Cleo?) I have recently acquired a piece of Taxco Mexican silver, and would like to learn more about it. I have done some investigating on the internet and cannot find info about this particular mark.
The piece is a pin/pendant depicting a head with elaborate headdress. The face of the head is a dimensional carved stone, perhaps obsidian. (it is a very dark grey color with some opalescence to it when it catches the light.) The pin measures 2 1/4" long, the stone face is 1 1/8" long. The back is marked with an eagle mark that has the number 185 (I think) inside; a name in script - Cheo, Chea, possible Cleo; then it says Mexico, Taxco and 925. I would love to know more about the age of this item, and any info about the artist who designed it.

submitted by Hilary
CHRISTOFLE I'm hoping you can help me with a bit of a puzzle that I have.

I picked up a spoon at a flea market that I am wondering about it's provenance. I'm not a collector (I just liked the spoon) but I'd like to know more about it. I thought it was silver plate, but it doesn't seem to have any brass showing through where it has scratches or on the bottom of the spoon bowl. It says "Carlton Hotel" on the bottom of the wide part of the handle and is marked christofle. There is also a little hallmark that looks kind of like a sweater? but of course it's not, so maybe it looks a little like a castle tower. I don't have a magnifier so

Thanks very much for any help you can provide.

submitted by Lorien

Orfevrerie Christofle was founded in Paris France in 1830. They certainly worked in sterling, but were also the first company to offer silver plate in France. The mark I'm familiar with for Christofle was a bee in a wide diamond-shaped cartouche with a "C" on either side and three stars at the top. I'm not able to comment on the rest of the marks.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"CC" (interlocking for Clarence Crafterers) Yes indeed Carence Crafters is collectible, especially their sterling pieces with interlocking designs. There isn't a whole lot of info on them, but you can see some examples with prices in my book, Warman's Jewelry, 2nd edition.
There also a reference to them in the catalog from the Chicago Historical Society, Chicago Metalsmiths by Sharon S. Darling. Also, ARK Antiques'
catalogs often include examples of their work.

information provided by Christie Romero
"coenand B cccp


            M "      


Example is a modern sterling enamel pin done in turquoise blue and brown enamel and actually the design reminds me of a bull in the center of the piece).

submitted by Jackie Weeks

It's probably Russian ie CCCP is Russian (cyrillic, I believe) for USSR. I'm guessing that the B Coenand is the maker mark. The M mark is probably the district mint mark, no idea which one. I don't see any equivalent in Tardy's for the other marks, so this piece may not be sterling.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

CCCP *is* (was) the Russian (Cyrillic) initials for USSR, but I've seen a couple of Socialist-era Russian pieces, and they all have a sickle-within-a-star hallmark.

information provided by Marilyn

"Coenand B CCCP" means "Made in USSR" and "n102" refers to the style number of that particular item. Not sure about the "M," although it may refer to the city of manufacture. I've been researchng Russian jewelry markings for some time, purely out of personal interest. It's a tricky business as many of the marks just don't appear in any sort of guides unless the pieces are of especially fine quality.

information provided by Linda in Philadelphia



"EC" and "ND + , Norway, Sterling"

(Example is a sterling neckring and pendant. The marks on the pendant and neckring are "ND and the Plus mark, Norway, and sterling but the designer mark I'm not familar with. Inbetween the ND and the Plus mark are two marks that look like chicken foot prints. They are two V's laying on their sides and the first one has a line in the middle which reminds me of a chicken foot print and the next V is just a V on it's side with no line in the middle.)

submitted by Jackie Weeks

The Norway Design/Plus mark in question has the initials "EC" which stands for Erling Christophersen (b. 1932), the husband of Anna Greta Eker, and the person who managed the Plus silver workshop in Fredirkstad. For those who may not know, Greta's mark on her silver jewelry is _occasionally found with Christophersen as her last name. Brief biographies of both of these individuals is included in my forthcoming book, Collectible Silver Jewelry, available this fall.

information provided by Fred Rezazadeh

"CA y CIA over 0925" (within a sheild)  I have a couple pieces of silver that I'm guessing are from South America. The mark is CA y CIA over 0925, all within a simple outline of a shield.  They're obviously handmade, with a beaten texture.  I couldn't find the mark online (yes, I'm well aware of the 925-1000
site, and the Heritage site; thanks, folks!), nor is it in my copy of Tardy's.  Anyone have a clue?
"I. G. C." and Mexican eagle mark with #54  It is an Aztec design pin/pendant marked on the back with the initials (in simple block letters) I.G.C. surrounded by the typical circle of words. There is an eagle assay mark with the number 54 inside.

submitted by Rosalie Isaacs
"MC" in a circle (Example is a piece which is hallmarked, tiny marks which look Scottish although I can't make date out at all. But that's a guess. The makers mark is clear..'MC' in a circle. I've had one suggestion, that it looks a bit like items designed by Dame Laura Knight for Clarice Cliff. But, I can't confirm.)

submitted by Adrienne Shivers

"Castelan, 0925, MEX,
(Example is a beautiful, intricate "basse-taille" enamel and sterling silver pin/pendant of Mayan Indian; probably c. 1960s;  approximately 3" x 1-3/4"; marked on reverse what looks like "Castelon, 0925 MEX, STERLING" )

submitted by Marbeth Schon

(Example is a pair of  cufflinks, marked "Castelan also with a pre-hispanic theme, as was Marbeth's pin. On the front of each link, which depicts a male figure, by the way, it also says TLALOC in block capital letters, clearly meant to be part of the design.)

(submitted by Rosalie Isaacs

We don't know who Castelan was. I don't think that it's an attempt to confuse anyone, as the mark is quite different fron Los Castillo. Marbeth was wondering, because of the similarity in style and design if this was a Los Castillo design (actually, I'd guess Margot?) that was put out by Castelan, but we were pretty sure, from the beginning that it was not an actual Los Castillo piece.

The eagle #15 is a Los Castillo eagle #, but the #s were often mis-used, confused and used by others, so that is not a reliable ID. You may have a Los Castillo design that may have been pilfered after it was stamped #15, but before it was stamped Los Castillo. Or, it could be an original design by Castelan, somehow with the #15 on it. It's also possible that someone from Mexico City used a #15, or from other parts of Mexico. (Notice that Marbeth's jpg of the mark doesn't mention Taxco, but is marked "MEX", which probably indicates Mexico City.)

Due to Don Antonio's illness, I was never able to ask him the specific question regarding "Castelan", and my emails of the jpg bounced back, so, he never had a chance to see Marbeth's jpg. I was hoping that he might be able to identify the piece as his origianal design and 'Castelan' as one of his craftsman and give some additional history.

In many other previous discussions, he always assured me that all of his items were marked "Los Castillo". Some had additional 'line' names, such as 'Cobre Artistico', 'Metales Casados', etc., but they all should have the Los Castillo mark, also.

Sheila did buy a new bracelet from him that was only marked 'Sterling 925', and when she pointed it out to Don Antonio, he had his worker come in with the "Los Castillo' stamp. Thunk, and it was now marked! So, some pieces get missed, occasionally.

There are many duplications of his designs, even in the difficult 'Married Metals' pieces, which were probably done by his craftsman, on there own, or even possibly snuck out of his shop and stamped with their own stamp. Sheila had, at the same time, the Aztec Warrior pendant by Los Castillo and another marked "Metales Casados, Hecho in Mexico". (Not Taxco as Los Castillo's would have been marked). They were virtually identicle.

We were fortunate to be able to have Sigi Pineda identify 2 of Margot's copyists who were her workers that had obtained Margot's origianl molds; "M Arias" as Miguel Arias from her enamel department and "HL" as Hilario Lopez, one of her silversmiths. Penny Morrill has, of course, identified "Alba" as the work of her former manager Jaimie Quiroz. You'll find some of her enamel snake sets with this mark. Many of Margot's enamel snake sets are also marked "MR", which is a mark used by Melicio Rodriguez, who also worked for Margot.

information provided by Glenn Pamfilof

Los Castillo

Can you tell me if there is any kind of a reference on the internet that would further describe Los Castillo pieces, for example what numbers were used during what years and which symbols .... I love their work, and wish to have as many pieces as possible, however I like history on my collections and I would very much like to know the history on pieces that I purchase.

submitted by Jo-an 

Don't we all! Unfortunately, there is only a broad circa-dating range that we can infer from the marks on Los Castillo pieces - or most other Taxco makers', for that matter.

The makers of the things we love and collect weren't thinking contact us and posterity when they marked their wares. They just wanted to identify their work and, in the case of design numbers, keep track of the designs in their 
inventory. And in the case of assay marks, they were following government regulations.

A certain amount of circa-dating can be guessed at from the designs themselves, which followed current trends, and their techniques. For example, Los Castillo was known for introducing the technique of "metales casados" - married metals - around 1950-51. So we can associate metales casados pieces with the 1950s and 60s. When the popularity of these designs waned, so did the teaching of the technique to apprentices. Now there is virtually no one in Taxco who practices it.

Information provided by Christie Romero

Chato Castillo


Jorge “Chato” Castillo is featured in Bille Hougart’s The Little Book of Mexican Silver Trade and Hallmarks and is discussed in Mexican Silver, 4th Edition, by Penny Chittim Morrill and Carole A. Berk, as well as in Silver Masters of Mexico by Penny C. Morrill.

Regarded as a genius for his technical brilliance, as well as for the diversity of his designs, Jorge “Chato” Castillo—El Maestro Chato—was one of the principal players in the nascent years of Mexico’s silver renaissance. He worked with William Spratling and many of his initial designs were used as prototypes for pieces later produced by Los Castillo.


information provided by Marbeth Schon

Metales Casados

First I have a Pin/Pendant marled Metalls casadds ... Mexico then in a circle Sterling 925 Maybe Taxco Mex.  Also the Eagle Mark with the Number 3 inside and within the circle there is a unreadable mark 

submitted by Roger Erickson

I have the famous parrot design that won the Taxco silversmithing contest in 1953. It has been in my family since 1953 or 1954, and was purchased by my father in Taxco. It does not say "Los Castillos." The hallmark is "Metales  Castillo" . It is married metals, and it is possible that it is a copy of the Los Castillos design, I suppose.  I would like to ask Ms. Pamfiloff if she is aware of the use of the hallmark in the early days of the Los Castillos Silverworks.

submitted by Jane Heidelberg

I'm curious about the difference in hallmarks. I have a necklace that is tubes of silver, brass and copper soldered together forming sections.They are then "strung" together creating a "collar". It is stamped METALES COSTILLOS  MADE IN MEXICO 199 on the back of the clasp.

I would love to know the difference between pieces stamped LOS COSTILLOS and METALES COSTILLOS.

submittted by Karen 

Hi Jewel lovers, especially Mexican silver lovers!
I have a very cool bracelet, which looks like it could be Los Castillo, but it is only marked 925 HECHO EN MEXICO, then something I cannot make out, and METALES. Did Los Castillo ever mark pieces this way?


submitted by Ellen 

Yes, "Metales Castillo" is a valid Los Castillo mark, that was often used for a variety of mixed metals. I think you mentioned in an earlier post that it had a design number #63, which is the correct design number for that series, and that yours has the eagle #15, which is also correct. Voila! Yours must be a legitimate c.1953 vintage Los Castillo pin.

information provided by Sheila Pamfiloff

I have several pieces of mixed or married metals
that are variously signed "metales" or "metales casados" but are not Los Castillo. Equally mysterious are the piedra negra and mixed metal pieces by the artist Tono, who is often confused with Antonio Castillo or Antonio Pineda. My best guess is that these guys learned their stuff at Los Castillo
or from former Los Castillo artisans. Most Los Castillo mixed metal pieces that I've seen are signed "Metales Castillo".

information provided by Kim Matthews

"Metales Castillo"
"C B & S" (in a shield) on Sheffield Sheffield mark CB &S (in a shield)

submitted by Sue
"Chf VH Haadarbeide, Denmark, Sterling" I picked up this wonderful chunky sterling and amber bracelet the other day. The marks on it are "Haandarbeide, Denmark, Sterling, Chf. VH". Any one have a clue on this piece.

submitted by Jackie Weeks

Kurt Eric Christoffersen


A friend wrote with this request for information and I am passing it on to 
I bought a rather nice collar style necklace at auction recently, and i have come up negative on trying to track down the artist who made it. perhaps you can help or can direct me to another  resource. it is marked STERLING and is stamped D E CHURCH but in  lower case letters. i have not been able to find anything to support my research. 

submitted by Marbeth Schon

Petra Class

German trained silversmith, Petra Class creates jewelry that is beautiful and wearable. He works in mostly in gold and silver. The themes of "rhythmical arrangements of several elements, repetition of similar forms or colors, (and) the unexpected contrasts of differently textured materials" are often repeated in his work. From:

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Rebecca Collins (Examples are pieces by Rebecca Collins; They are well made and look like they were expensive when new)

submitted by Julie Sferrazza

There is a shop called "Rebecca Collins" in Dallas. I don't know if it's the same one.

information provided by Marilyn


Eva Mariam Cone

Example is a pair of mid-century modern cufflinks with abstract fish design marked "_LLAL CONE, STERLING"

I recently purchased another piece of jewelry by Ella L. Cone.  I believe that she was a studio jeweler working in New York in the 1950s.   She used findings marked: "T-2" as did Ed Wiener. The brooch I purchased is marked clearly "Ella L.Cone".  
submitted by Marbeth Schon

Sorry I cannot help you with your question but I wanted to add a comment to the mystery mark  list and am unable because I do not have a yahoo account.  There is a mark  "EllaL Cone" .  I have cufflinks with this mark in 
thier original presentation box which reads "The Silversmiths' Shop",  "ELLA L CONE " "225 Berkeley Street, Boston 16,Mass" and on the bottom ":Hyannis  
Rockport".  If you add this to the mystery mark  information I would be much obliged.

information provided by Elaine from Connecticut

Eva Mariam Cone:  Eva Mariam Cone taught metalsmithing at Moore College of Art for 40 years or so.  She studied in the Boston area in the late teens and early 20s with famed American silversmith George Hunt. She was about 90 years old when interviewed by Gail Selig in 1982. She was a pioneer, as far as women go, in silversmithing in Philadelphia and had shows throughout the Philadelphia and Boston area. She vowed never to wear any of her work in front of her students for fear of influencing them.  Her work had a strong Danish influence, though she used many Mexican motifs.  Whether her work was hallmarked is a mystery.

information provided by Gail Selig

Betty Cooke

Betty Cooke has been designing and creating her one-of-a-kind pieces since the 1940s. She has been widely recognized and has won many prizes for her work. She exhibited at the 1951 "Alumni Exhibition,Textiles, Ceramics, Metalwork" at the Cranbrook Academy of Art, 1955 and 1959 at the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, and she was given a retrospective at the Maryland Institute, College of Art in 1995. I interviewed Betty Cooke at her shop in Baltimore in 2001.  You can read that interview at

She is also featured in my books, Modernist Jewelry 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and her work was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008. See American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970, MODERN SILVER magazine, Winter, 2008-2009.

information provided by Marbeth Schon



I just bought a very cool pin and earrings set with marbly enamel set on
sterling. It's signed COOKSON STERLING. Anyone familiar with this maker?

submitted by Ellen S.

Leo Coriz Does anyone know if Leo Coriz worked with or for Matilde Poulat in her early silver jewelry production?

submitted by Julie Kontor

Elaine Coyne  
"JPC" (English silver dish) I am new to this group and thought someone out there might be able to assist me. I have ordered a comprehensive book on silver marks, but with all the current mail delays, I of course have not received it! In the meantime, can anyone shed some light on the silver mark JPC? It is on what looks to be hand beaten English silver dish along with a face mark and the letter "r".

submitted by Kat.

JPC in an oval cartouche on an arts and crafts piece would probably be John Paul Cooper: an important English silversmith/jeweller working in late 1800s -c1930.  Member
of Artificers guild, worked with Henry Wilson and had his own workshop in Kent, England.  A book was written about his work in 1999.  

Information provided by Anne Pyne. 

"Hecho en Mexico CEURNAVACO,
(Example wasa silver Mexican necklace that was made in the 1920's with a total length of 29 inches.It can be worn by a man or a woman. It has a bar clasp in frontout 4 1/2" up from the bottom. The bottom bead on each side swings free.It has mahing beads (almost 1/2" wide) attached to the bar clasp, making the clasp almost 1 3/4" wide. The inside chain is hand made of heavy silver wire (hard to tell but looks like 1 inch segments folded back on each other, but no end pieces show).

The beads solid silver heavy with filigree wire work and granulation with as fine a quality as old Norwegian work. There are 50 smaller beads (1/2") and 4 larger beads (3/4"). It is marked Hencno(?) Mexico (made in Mexico) CEURNAVACO. Ceurnavaco as I understand it was an active silver making area very near Taxco. And the makers mark is ED.

submitted by Pat Talbott

crab mark


Can anyone out there give me some information on this necklace. The marks are very tiny. From what I can see there is a diamond shape with a half of a sun rayonnant (as we say in France) and then what appears to be a 5 lobed circle with a crab in the center. The marks are too tiny to photograph let alone see clearly. 

submitted by Julia

The marks sound like French hallmarks to me. The 'crab' mark is the Paris mark for silver, usually 800 silver I believe. The 'sun rayonnant' in a navette-shaped reserve ie diamond-shaped is the maker's mark, but I've no idea who it's for as I don't have a listing of French maker's marks. If anyone knows of a listing of French maker's marks, and hopefully how to get a copy, please let me know too. There's a good picture of the 'crab' mark in the "Marks on Metals" appendix to Warman's Jewelry 2nd edition, by Christie Romero.

information provided by Patrick Kapty 

To make a long story short, I was at one of those "gold parties" sponsored by my neighbor (right,
the obligatory presence) and one of the women brought this pin with her. It is 18 karat gold.
She was about to sell it to the gold person to be melted down, and of course, I opened my big mouth
and said NO! Egads, it looks like it has too much history for that. So I rescued the pin and told
the owner I would try to research it for her. She is in her 50s and it was her grandmother's pin
who was from Norway. That's all I know.

Since I know there are quite a few Scandinavian people on the list, I am hoping that some of you
can give me any details on the origin, symbolism, age, anything whatver of the pin. I have been
searching the net for the past two days and come up with zero!

Elaine Kula

This pin is interesting and historically significant. It is the crest of Christian X, King of Denmark, and is a patriotic piece from WWII. It is cut from a gold coin and appears to be in a period mount. Christian is respected in the Jewish commnunity because of his loyalty to those people and defiance to the Nazi regime. I have a couple of these pins in silver in my small personal collection.

information provided by Erick Yang

Angela Cummings

I have an angela cummings huge necklace "orchid" and was wondering if anyone has any information about her...I know she works at Tiffanys but the piece is dated prior to her work being featured there..I think at one point she was selling her jewelry in Bergdorf's

submitted by Jackie

VHC (Example was a pair of deco sterling earrings marked VHC.

submitted by Louise

"WHC" (in an oval)  British hallmarks I have done a bit on the net with google. Here is where I am. I have an old smoking pipe a calabash. It has a silver band and lip. Both are marked WHC in an oval outline. Then comes the hallmark. the Lion Passant comes first which means it is English and 925 silver. the next mark is a shield shape with three somewhat ovals and a stick in the center down to the lower center "o".They almost look like the shape of mushrooms or of wheat stacked and bound in the field or broccoli.( yes you call all laugh now) I have looked at a site that has English and Irish marks and no luck. The last is the date mark which looks like a reclining letter G in script. Now all of the rest of you can start laughing. I have a hunch that you folks now where I can look for these symbols and dope out what I have even though this is a Pipe. (a rather nice Sherlock Holms type with a neat clam shell
case) I hope you like a puzzle and thanks in advance for any
information you can share as well as your patience and those of you who are still giggling at my broccoli can stop now.

submitted by  John B


Your description of the hallmark tells me that it is Chester uk.which stopped assaying in 1925 your letter description suggests 1909 but you can check this yourself at

I think the answer can be found at http:/
W.H.Crouch produced 1908-1926 london and swansea. hallmarks chester & birmingham.hope this is useful.

information provided by Peter Hagan from Telford, Shropshire

Copyright T. and Co." I recently acquired this interesting art deco bracelet.  It is beautifully made, much like the Komai work from Japan.  It is made from steel and has inlaid gold and silver circles.  The circle motif is asymmetrically repeated on the gold inner band.  It has the mark "Copyright T. and Co." with a hand inscribed number of 2431. 

I have searched through all my texts and can't find any information about this particular mark.  Is this Tiffany?  If so, what time period is this from, and can it be attributed to any of their designers.  I did ask at Tiffany's here in Dallas, but didn't have the piece with me.  Of course, the salesman's knowledge seemed to end with examples that are currently in production.

submitted by Erik Yang
Danish two towers mark and capital serif "P" I purchased this chalice this morning at an antique show and was told it's Danish, dating to 1935. The mark doesn't look right to me -- shouldn't it be three towers, not two? The friend who was with me says she thinks it might have been used as a Communion chalice; the stem shows what we think are Adam and Eve. It's relatively large, measuring about 7 inches from the top of the finial to the bottom, and about 5 inches across.
submitted by Evelyn Yallen

On Danish pieces two towers instead of three towers indicated that the items is silverplated.

information provided by Fred Rezazadeh

"D" (in a square) This is a very different modern design. I think that it is very
interesting and I receive many compliments and inquiries about it. The mark is 925 with the letter "D" in a square. It measures 2 5/8" inside diameter and approximately 1" wide. The "crushed" effect makes it difficult to measure
and it is fairly heavy. I would really appreciate any information or comments about it.

submitted by Pat Seal
"E.A. Day" I was wondering if anyone has any info on a Maker E A DAY it is a LARGE Wood & Sterling Brooch E.A. Day and Looks Modernist....Thank you 

submitted by Roger

"925, DAVIS" I just picked up a pair of sterling and cabachon
amethyst earrings pictured at the below URLs.  They
are marked "925, DAVIS, Sterling".  I have been unable
to find any reference to this mark in my books or
online - all I come up with is Fred Davis or Whiting &
Davis - any ideas?

Thank you!

William De Hart exhibited at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1948. He was a graduate of the Universities of New Mexico and Iowa, studied jewelry at the Crafts Students League in New York and was a member of the New York Society of Craftsmen.  I believe that he was either president of artistic director of Towle Silversmiths in the late 1950s when they were producing a line of modernist sterling dishes decorated in abstract enamel paintings.  A bracelet of enameled domes by De Hart is illustrated in Enameling (1954) by Mary Larom.

Taker from "Modernist Jewelry, 1930--1960" by Marbeth Schon

information courtesy of Tom Guarrera

"Denmark" and the image of a whale I just acquired a lovely silver ornate pillbox and it is signed 
Denmark and the image of a whale or 2 fish attached to each other?
Anyone familiar with this mark?

submitted by laylah
"Erik Dennung" I just acquired an incredible cuff bracelet marked "Erik Dennung" "made in Denmark" Then there's a hallmark.

submitted by k

I came across your 'mystery marks' site, searching for the name Erik Dennung, as I have just acquired a beautiful handmade silver ring in the shape of a rose with his mark on it - in a flea market! I found a question on your site concerning his name. As I live in Copenhagen, Denmark, I tried to look up the name in the yellow pages. It seems that Mr. Dennung is very much alive: actually he has his own shop, situated in Copenhagen, by the name of Dennung Sølvsmedie Aps. Regretfully, I have no further information about his career.

information provided by Fie Lundsgaard Olsen

R DEROSA I have a  pair of silver earrings marked RDeROSA (The E is uppercase also but half  the height of the other letters) The earrings are a large (about 3/4inch)  single danish knot, clip-on style. On the clip, it is marked STER.PAT  1967965  This patent number was issued in 1934.
Ralph De Rosa started  his company in the mid 1930's. Does anybody know when this design was  produced? Most of his designs have stones but these are just silver.

submitted by April

The patent number is for the design of the earclip  backs and has no bearing on when the earclips were actually made. DeRosa used  sterling from 1942 until 1949 and so your earclips would have been made during  that time period.

information provided by Pat Seal

(two dolphins side by side) I recently purchased a ring that is strongly suggestive of Sam Kramer, however the only mark I can find is of two dolphins side by side. Does this mark ring a bell with anyone?
"Puig Doria"

Just wondering if anyone has ever heard of the maker or designer from spain "Puig Doria". I just bought the most unbelievable sterling necklace with that mark on it. 

submitted by Jackie Weeks
Duck mark and "Sterling" (Example was a . great modernist stickpin composed of an open square of hammered silver with a jade suspended in the middle. It is simply marked Sterling and has a tiny duck stamp.

submitted by Sharon

"ND" (conjoined)

(Example is  a NORWAY STERLING mark. It looks like the letter "K" sitting in a depressed background that is the letter "M.")

submitted by Rosalie Isaacs

The mark is a large conjoined ND for Norway Design (which looks more like a big fat N), often seen in conjunction with a + sign for Plus, the applied arts workshop in Frederickstad, Norway, where Tone Vigeland, among others, worked in the late 50s. Your piece only has the one mark, and I'm not sure what that means.

information provided by Christie Romero

"ND" (not conjoined) (Example is a quality silver ring marked "ND 925" It has a Scandinavian look.

submitted by Susan Williams

This piece I am wondering about...I first thought Mexican but now feel it is early Native early that is one question for you folks..  :)  Also any ideas as to the is stamped with this symbol  <  then S D.  The design is Mosiac?  

submitted by Roger

According to "Hallmarks of the Southwest" by Barton Wright, there is a Santo Domingo Native American silversmith, Mary Lavato who specializes in "inlaid shell, also does cast work decorated by stamping."  Her Hallmark is "S.D." stamped or engraved.  This might be the maker of you piece.  Evidently, she also sometimes uses her husband's initials also S.F.L. (for Sedalio F. Lavato).  They worked in similar manner.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

I'm guessing it's fairly modern and Hopi. The marks are similar to those used on Hopi pieces although my copy of Hopi silver, the history and hallmarks of Hopi silversmithing by Margaret Nickelson Wright does not list SD. Closest is DS (same letterform) for Darrell Sakeva from the Corn clan,
Shungopavi village who began working in 1993.

information provided by Brenda 

"H. Decker, Sveirge"
I would like to know if anyone has heard of a SIlversmith named H.Decker?I believe,I have a Letter opener that looks to be silver with some carvings of DIffernt things like People and animals and Trees and such & also has a Dutch look to the carvings or design if you will on it,kinda like a retrospective of what Danish life is about Maybe, and also has the word "Sverige" it looks like it is signed H.Decker, thinking danish maybe or scandinavian.On back it has the words "CABEXTRAIMAALP",it looks somewhat old also if that helps.I have been searching for weeks.I have a photo of it if needed.Any help at all would be appreciated

submitted by daysofyore

H. Decker was probably the silversmith Heinz Decker who worked in Lidingo, Sweden in the 1960s. "Sveirge" means "Sweden" and I believe the other words , "CABEXTRAIMAALP", refer to silverplate (meaning fine or extra silver plating).  I may not be right about that, maybe someone else knows more.

information provided by Marbeth Schon
"A Dominguez" and eagle mark with number "3" I'm looking for information and dating assistance on a pair of sterling screwback earrings with a very detailed and dimensional grape motif. The marks on the back include: Sterling - 925, Taxco, A. Dominguez and an eagle mark with the number 3.

submitted by Sheryl
"AE" (within a heart)
I too have some Mexican silver jewelry with the initials AE in a  heart. According to the recent  book on Spratling and the Maestros de  Plata, this mark was used  by Estella Popowski who worked with Antonio  Castillo and other well know Mexican designers.One of my pieces, a curved silver leaf with amethysts and moonstones,  closely resembles a piece I have seen by Antonio Castillo. It is about 2  1/2 to 3 inches long. I too would be interested in any further information  anyone may have about this mark.

I saw a bracelet on the website 'The Lush Life' that says AE in a  heart is the mark of Abraham Paz, which is confusing to me. 

How can AE be the mark of EP?...Estella  Popowski?  This is completely baffling.  Anyone out there know about  this??

submitted by Marj

"JSE, 925, TAXCO" I have a lovely sterling necklace marked J.S.E. 925 Taxco, Hencho En Mexico and the eagle mark with the number 3. The JSE mark is listed both in Fred's silver book and Bille Hougart's book, but with no actual information on the artist.

If you have any additional information, I would appreciate hearing it.

submitted by Sheryl
"AVE Juarez 40 Mexico Prieto 925" Anyone recognize this mark..this maker? The mark reads 
AVE. Juarez 40
"EGKP" and Star of David (Example is a sterling paste figural pin with these marks: 935 A "Jewish" star with an E on one side and a G on the other -and-a K with a P crossing the bottom of the K at an angle.)

submitted by Ellen Solway

Mexican Eagle (or bell) mark Would anyone be able to set me straight on some funny little basics I still am not sure of. 
1. Regarding the mark which has the makers number in it on Mexican silver. It looks like a bell to me. Some people say a "bell shaped mark" Some people say an "eagle mark" Are these two different things or do both refer to the same mark with the number in it?

2. If I have a piece of silver with a design number, will that mark help to approximate a date for that piece. If so, where(which book or site) do I start looking? (For mexican or scandinavian for example)

submitted by Mimi in Australia

The best place to read about the Mexican eagle or bell mark is Mexican Eagle Marks  The use of the eagle mark is described and there is a list of attributed eagle mark numbers.

As far as your other question regarding design numbers on pieces, it depends on the piece. My experience has been that design numbers designate a piece that was made in a series so it is not one of a kind. There is a nice explanation of design numbers on Georg Jensen pieces on page 297 of Janet Drucker's book, "Georg Jensen, a Tradition of Splendid Silver." She says that "Design numbers were given to each piece of jewelry and hollowware. Numerical order was the placement of production numbers, although there are many exceptions.....Generally, one could expect that lower numerals mean an earlier year of production.

In "Mexican Silver" by Berk and Morrill, there is an explanation of Inventory or Design numbers in the glossary. It indicates that design numbers designated designs in an inventory and usually a smaller number meant an earlier piece. 

Of course, unless you have documentation of the dates certain numbers were used, it's very difficult to date a piece using this method.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Mexican Eagle mark "1" Dear Fellow Collectors, Scholars, and members of Silver Forum:
Recently, Phyllis Goddard sought to elicit information on the use of the Mexican Eagle Mark#1 on certain pieces by Spratling and other Tallers. Much discusion followed on Silver Forum.

It occurred to me after reflecting on a conversation I had with Jim Tracy pertaining to this query that the eagle mark #1 may have evolved through the advent of several possible scenarios.

One possibility is that it was placed on certain pieces of old inventory from pre-1945 that Spratling or HIS MEXICO CITY OUTLETS had in stock after the requirement for the eagle mark came into effect

In addition, it appears to have been used on certain pieces from 1949-55(or whenever the simple script WS actually began and ended). 

The aforementioned pieces that fall into either time span may have represented: @ pieces that Spratling himself worked on and retained in his own inventory during this period but BEFORE he was assigned the eagle marks 30 and 63;. b) pieces in the inventory of his Mexico city outlets, including Conquistador and such outlets as Casa Calpini, before he was assigned the other eagle marks. In this event, the Mexico City shops may have stamped the pieces in inventory with an eagle 1 to comply with the requirement before they were actually sold to customers. 

c)An additional possibility is that those pieces actually manufactured at the ranch during the late40s/early fifties were not intended for export to other countries,but rather represented a very small group of pieces made either by request; as prototypes or models for Conquistador , or for sale on an extremely limited basis to local or visiting customers by request or commission. Since these items were not intended for export, Spratling may not have applied for any eagle mark at all because production was so limited, and it is my understanding that the eagle mark was only required on items designed for export or actually exported (or possibly those sold to foreigners-I've always been uncertain about this) as evidence of standardized silver content. 

If any of these pieces eventually found their way to Mexico City, and were ultimately exported or sold by Mexico city shops, the eagle 1 may have then been applied.

A final possibility is that the eagle 1 was the very earliest eagle mark authorzed by the government, and that it was generally used during a transitional period until each taller was assigned its own particular mark. In this case, it might have appeared for a limited time on the pieces of several tallers, including the Spratling ranch.

If anyone would care to comment on the foregoing hypotheses, your participation would be greatly appreciated... 

Best regards: Jill Crawford

Mexican Eagle mark "31"


I am trying to identify the Mexican Artist who used the number 31 in the eagle. Any ideas?

submitted by Heidi

Eagles Head Side Profile, Copyright "C" Inside a Circle Mark, "Sterling"  Here is another Mystery Mark for you..It is a Sterling Silver Pin with Free Moving Pearls. The Mark which was hard to photograph looks like an Outline of an Eagles Head Side have an Eye and Beak?? Plus a Copyright C Inside a Circle Mark after it and the Word Sterling below! 

submitted by Roger

 backwards E conjoined to a D Hello I have  a QUICK question and hope for some help from you all of the experts out there.  I have an unusual sterling silver bracelet and it has a coinjoined hallmark of a backwards E conjoined to a D.  I thought it was Emile David but was informed it could be Etienne David.   The craft and design are FLAWLESS.   I would like any and all info on this peice.  
Alma Eikermann    Alma Eikerman :  Alma Eikerman taught metalsmithing at Indiana University for 31 years, retiring in 1978.  She was a "veteran of the initial stirrings of post-World war II modernism", encouraging her students to study historic metalwork and to "sense his or her own place in a continuum of art, girded by key monuments of metalwork and supported by the history of painting and sculpture".  She was a recipient of an Indian University Special Project Research Award in 1951 which took her to Europe where she studied  the work of Karl Gustav Hansen and cubist sculptor Ossip Zadkine. In the 1960s, her work was "characterized by rich texturing, sweeping lines reminiscent of the cosmic linear systems of the sculptor Richard Lippold, elaborate joinery and jewel settings......her pieces read like sculptures in the round.....With a pendant-pin of 1968, she injected a new sense of kinesthetic urgency of forms suspended in dynamic and truly monumental tension.....a formed and constructed pendant of 1971 heaves up from molten depths and is smitten by a sliver of silver fire that cuts through it's waist, leaving crinkled traces behind."  In the 70s and 80s her work was more lyrical and minimal with "quiet, heavy, and self-contained forms......Through her work and the legacy she has left to her students, Alma Eikerman has been major force in transforming silverworks from passive objects of delight into powerful agents motivated by primordial energies".   (from American Craft  Dec.-Jan. 1985-86, pp. 17-21) information provided by Marbeth Schon

Alma Eikerman taught at Indiana University in Bloomington until her retirement a decade or so ago. She passed away several years ago. She did jewelry, but was also very well known for her holloware.   information provided by Mary Hu

Peter Ein-hod
Peter Ein-hod is the signature of Johanaan Peter who, along with Hans Jean Arp and Marcel Janco established the artist's village  at Ein-Hod, Israel.  He collaborated with Arp on some jewelry pieces. His own work is esoteric in its unusually patinated silver.  He also sometimes uses smooth, colored glass.

Submitted by Marbeth Schon with help from Ilka Weiland

Egyptian Hallmarks Hi Sue, from left to right the motif that is in the 1st square is an Arabic "80" meaning this is 80% silver. The 2nd square contains a lotus flower signifying it was hallmarked in Egypt (a Lion symbol was used instead up to the 1920's when Egypt was under British occupation). The 3rd square contains
the letter "S" in Arabic. The letter is used to signify the date of
hallmarking. The S signifies that it was hallmarked in the 60's. By the way the ceramic scarab was very popular in silver jewelry in the 60's. I hope this helped. 

information provided by Randa

"Ela/Denmark/Sterling/925" I have a beautiful bird pin.....goldwash over silver with a blue/creme enameling. 

It is marked on the back.... Ela/Denmark/Sterling/925

The mark you're querying is for Egon Lauridsen of Copenhagen, in business from 1936 to 1966, all per my Danish marks book, "Registrering af Navnestempler Gennem 100 Ar for Arbejeder af Aedle Mettaller 1893-1993". 
Sorry, no other info in available.

information provided by Patrick Kapty
"ELIOT"(and Menorah) (Example is a bracelet of substantial weight, all handmade from bar and sheet stock. The dark section of the disk is some kind of wood. Only marks are "ELIOT", all caps and block letters, and another mark that is a Menorah with a capital M to the left all in a square reserve ie the outline of the mark. NO sterling mark, perhaps Israeli . )

submitted by Patrick Kapty

Gudmund Elvestad I have several pins made by Gudmund Elvestad for Tostrup in Norway. They are unlike any other Norwegian pieces I've ever seen. I have been unable to find any information on this artist, or any more pieces by him. Any help would be greatly welcomed.

submitted by  Jan Kramer


submitted by Heather

Enamel mark: Mystery!

This beautiful cloisonné enamel has a great mark, but who could it be?  It appears to be American, maybe Native American? 

submitted by Marbeth Schon


Gertrude Engel

Gertrude Engel designed her jewelry based on plant-life found along the Danish Coast; she designed for A. Michelsen during the 1950s. (from European Designer Jewelry by Ginger Moro, page. 250)

information provided by Marbeth Schon


Robert & Audry Engstrom were a husband and wife team who worked independently and together to create modernist jewelry in silver and enamels.  It is hard to say who made pieces marked "Engstrom"--it is the mark I've seen mostly on enamels.  More information can be found in my second book, "Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970."

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"EPNS" I have an antique silver platter with a silver mark I can't identify - can
anyone help?

The visual part is a right hand grasping what appears to be either three palm trees or a palm tree with three heads to it. Each palm tree head has several fronds to it.  The right hand is coming from the right-hand side and is reaching upwards slightly.

Below that is three sets of initials in a horizontal row:  Either HA or BA, then either EA or BA, then FA.  And just to the right of this is a single set of four initials turned through 90 degrees (so you have to tilt your head to the right to read them): Either R or K, then PNS.

Finally, below all of this in a slightly larger typeface is the number 5160.

Clearly it's not British.  And the visual suggests somewhere tropical?

submitted by Michael

Your piece is silverplate, possibly English.  The "R or K, then PNS" you mention is actually "EPNS," or Electro-Plated Nickel Silver.  The other initials are for the maker.  The other mark is sometimes called a pseudo-hallmark because it resembles silver hallmarks, but is not one.  The idea was to make the consumer think the item might be solid silver.  Such marks as you describe--EPNS, initials, and a pseudo--are common on English plate of the Victorian era.  The # is the factory number to identify the piece in inventories, etc.

I am not a silverplate specialist, so I don't know exactly who made it.  You might want to try the site: which is a discussion board about silver (topics include: solid silver, silver jewelry, plate, coin silver, etc.).

information provided by Paul

Daniel Espinosa
From the title, you might think this would be a cinch but I cannot
make a decent guess at this maker/hallmark.

Can any of you? The big ball drop is solid and it's blackened sterling--I dunno why they did it blackened or solid, but there you have it!

 Thanks for any ideas!

 submitted by Tracy

I believe the mark is for Daniel Espinosa of Mexico
information provided by Nancy Pena


"925/ESPO/SIG." This necklace (a recent purchase) has a mark I've never seen 925/ESPO/Sig.
Not ESPN but ESPO.  Any ideas.  It does test sterling, but could be heavily plated I guess.

If it makes a difference, I think this is contemporary as the hook is a lobster clasp.

submitted by BeeGee McBride

The marking ESPO or also found as ESPO-FLEX are the marks of Esposito Jewelry, Inc. a costume jewelry company located in Providence Rhode Island, USA. These marks were first used in 1951.

(Examples were pieces of grapes with leaves marked: "EUROP-FELIX-FRANCE and in a square it says S E F F 1.".)

submitted by Lillith

superimposed "C" over "F" and Copyright symbol


I have 2 pins I would like a little help with...One is a Grape and Vine design. Marked Sterling and what looks like a Superimposed C over F with the Copyright symbol. I was thinking possibly C. Falkenstein??

submitted by Roger Erickson 

"GF" over "MW"(in a circle) My question is about a maker.  The mark (if i remember correctly) is GF over MW in a circle.  G-- F-- Metal Works, perhaps?  I have seen this on a number of 1960s-1980s or so brooches.  I am thinking it is some kind of body of variously skilled smiths.

There is no one style to the pieces I have seen, and also, they have ranged in quality from so-so to very good.

These are the pieces I have handled by this GFMW: -a stepped, trapezoidal piece of silver with a rose quartz cab.  Not that great quality.-a figural design of a needle piercing a wavy piece of "fabric" (which was just unbuffed silver).  Also not impressive quality. -a black oxidized silver frying pan, with a fried egg in its bowl (the white was buffed silver, the yolk a topaz cab).  This was very fine quality and also innovative in its design.

I don't have anything by them now, so I can't post a picture, but I havem been wondering about the mark for some time.

submitted by Paul

"FAHNER" (in block letters) Hello, I was checking out some auctions on and found a Fahrner piece that is signed Fahrner in block letters - not the TF in a circle. What era would that be?

submitted by Beegee

most of the pieces i've seen marked that way are 1930's. the 1940's pieces are usually stamped ORIGINAL FAHRNER (but some of the 1930's pieces are also marked that way). tf marked their pieces many different ways (even during the same period), but my guess is definitely after gustav braendle took over the company.

information provided by Ramona Tung

Fahrner (unmarked?) I've never had the opportunity to handle much in the way of quality German Silver and would really appreciate some assistance in that area. When I first spotted this pin and earrings, I thought that they resembled Fahrner designs.  Alas, the only marked  pieces that I've seen are in books.  I'd like to ask those of you with experience, is it possible, probable or unlikely that these are unsigned Fahrner pieces?
The pin is marked only Sterling Germany.  The earrings are not marked at all but, test Sterling.  Both are set with Chrysoprase and marcasites. There is very detailed metal work. I'd also like to ask, that since the stones of the earrings and pin differ in cut, should they really be
considered a set? I ask because they come from an estate where it was stated emphatically that it was a set.  I would really appreciate any information that you'd be willing to share. 

submitted by Susan Williams
"FBM" (or could be EBM or FBH) have found a very modernistic pendant which appears
to be handcrafted (even the paperclip chain appears
handmade). It is marked both on the reverse of the pendant and also on the chain with "835"
and what appears to be "FBM" (or could be EBM or FBH).

Does anyone know what country this might be from (I'm
not sure who worked in 835 silver) and who the maker is?  

submitted by Nancy Shadforth

While reading the texts of the link "Mystery Marks", I've found a
question to the hallmark "FBM".
FBM might stand for Binder, a german manufacturer from Mönsheim.
They produce individual jewelry as well as mass productions and are
well known for simple chains.


If you're still not sure, if the hallmark contains to Binder, perhaps
you can write an email with a photo of the mark!?

information provided by Luci

FC & C. EPNS Hi everyone,
I have flatware marked FC & Co. EPNS A1 mark but haven't found who it  is? 

Felice was New York mid 20th century jeweler.  We would love to know more!

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Leonard Field & William Mason


What can you tell me about William Mason and Leonard Field, jeweler/artisans who worked out of Winchester, Mass. after World War II?

submitted by Paul 

Please see for information on Leonard Field. and William Mason

Harold Clifton Fithian

Harold Clifton Fithina (1905 - 1972) was an artist/actor/jeweler who lived and in the Los Angeles, California area.  He signed "fi" and (later on in his career, I believe) "Fithian."  Please see

information provided by Patrick Kapty

A fish with an "L" in it's mouth

(mark for Fishel)


Now the problem is, is it the mark of Fishel
Sterling or is it an unknown German manufacturer.

submitted by Elaine 

Looks more like the Fishel mark to me. This is one of my favorite marks - a fish with an L in its mouth, like a rebus (remember those? I guess I'm dating myself! ;-)

One of the points of my upcoming lecture on marks for the West Coast Antique & Period Jewelry Seminar will be that the mark stamped on the piece is seldom as clear or well-defined as the drawing of the mark in the book. And variations of a mark are not uncommon.

You can find other variations of the Fishel mark in Rainwater's American Jewelry Mfrs. under Fishel, Nessler & Co. The company also had another mark that looks like a coat-of-arms or family crest, with an arm holding a hammer, like Arm & Hammer baking soda.

information provided by Christie Romero

"EUROP-FELIX-FRANCE, SEFF 1" (Examples were pieces of grapes with leaves marked: "EUROP-FELIX-FRANCE and in a square it says S E F F 1.".)

submitted by Lillith

"Far Fan" and eagle mark #13

My grandmother gave me a bracelet that is just breath taking !! Sterling silver with what seems to be green Onyx oval stones(7) On the back of this piece it has an Eagle with the # 13 along with a little round stamp that I cant quite make out. I know it is Mexican and must be @ least 50-60 years old Can anyone give me The background for this piece and value ???

submitted by Martha,

You are up against the "Taxco mystery" when it comes to marks.   Until the present day code system there really wasn't any coherent system of recorded hallmarks (the eagle/number thing is barely useable) and the silver business in Taxco was  (is?) so chaotic that there are often as many dead ends as answers.  We're talking Mexico here, not England or Denmark.  While a huge amount of investigation and scholarship by hard working authors and collectors has helped tremendously, there is much that, sadly, will never be known.  "G" will probably always remain G.  I have had some Mendez pieces using copper and silver together, and a few all silver pieces.i  Embrace the mystery!

 information provided by  Cris T.

Check the information in "The Little Book of Mexican Silver Trade and
Hallmarks". by Billie Hougart.  According to the book on Page 117, "Eagle
Number 13 (William  Spratling) has been seen on items of other well-known
maker, including Los Ballesteros. FAR FAN and Antonio Pineda.  Eagle 13 was
assigned to Spratling for his own use, and for his designs made at
Conquistador, and should not be expected to appear on non-Spratling items."
According to the book, FAR FAN was a jewelry maker in Mexico City.

information provided by CoralCarol

Yes, indeed this IS the FAR FAN mark. Bille Hougart's book also has it, but since you haven't gotten your copy yet, I figured I should tell you. No info on the maker, except that the shop was (is?) in Mexico City.

John Fix

John Fix was a resident of Sparks, Maryland.  He attended Ohio State University as an undergraduate from 1960-1964, majoring in art and sculpture.  He attended Cranbrook Academy of Art from 1964-1966 where he earned a MFA in metalsmithing and went on to teach metalsmithing at Towson State University in Maryland, beginning in 1967.  Fix died in 2011.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Andrew Fogelberg We have a teapot which we think is made by Andrew Fogelberg. Would anyone recognise the hallmark. I can send a photo of the hallmark for discussion.
Any comments would be welcome.
"FOSTER" I am researching a mark on silver & copper shoe buckles and hope that perhaps someone on the forum can help shed light on the maker. The buckles are marked with FOSTER, one pair with the name in block letters and all caps... the other pair in script upper and lower case. Is anyone familiar with the mark.... I have ruled out Lillian R. Foster, she work at a later date than these buckles would indicate. They are handwrought with plain planishing marks over the surface. I am hoping these may belong to Sybil Foster of Boston. I do not know her mark... Has anyone seen
other work by this craftsman/woman?

submitted by Fred Zweig

"Handwrought, Sterling, Frederick" Example is a pair of cufflinks signed: "Handwrought, Sterling, Frederick."

submittted by Jackie Weeks

Elsa Freund

Elsa Freund (1912- 2001) was a mostly self-taught jeweler. She was born in Branson, Missouri where she was influenced by the natural beauty of the Ozarks. In the 1940s, after teaching school and working at odd jobs, she started making jewelry.  Her "stones" were made by firing clay with pulverized bits of glass. Freund was an "intuitive modernist" who, though she had not seen the work of other modernist jewelers, wrapped her stones in free-form designs that are reminiscent of the work of New York jeweler, Sam Kramer. In 1949, Freund moved to Florida where she began placing her work in shops in Fort Lauderdale, Sarasota and St. Amand's Key.  Later, she also sold her work at America House in New York. 

Freund became a major figure in the studio jewelry movement of the mid-20th century and her work is in the permanent collections of many museums throughout the U.S. and abroad. Her work is featured in both of my books, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.

information provided by Marbeth Schon
"FREW, STERLING" Today while out jewel hunting I saw a cool pair of earrings with a mod design, marked STERLING & FREW. Is anyone familiar with this maker?

 submitted by Ellen S.

I believe that the earrings were probably made by studio jeweler J. Arnold Frew, who worked in California, I think maybe the town was Arcadia. He made quite a bit of jewelry for Hollywood types. There was an article about him in the magazine "Craft Horizons" in the late 50's. Earrings aren't common, he made more rings.

"FRIDL" and tulip with two leaves
stretched out in opposite directions

(mark for Fridl Blumenthal)

(Examples are a necklace and a bracelet whose design looks like a good cross between Hopi Indian and Salvador of Taxco. Stylistic overlay over a oxidized ground. The workmanship is superior. by a silversmith (worked in USA I believe) who's signature was FRIDL in Capital letters. A hallmark of a tulip with its two leaves stretched out in opposite directions is also present. The two leaves almost appear as a half-circle under the tulip flower. A style number is also given.

submitted by Lolly Commanday

I have seen this name on several pieces of jewelry and like this maker.  I have a pair of earrings, but can locate nothing about this designer or maker. Please assist if you know who this is. 

submitted by Donna

To add information to the questions by Lolly Commanday and Donna re the FRIDL jewelry signature.  I have a lovely piece signed the same way--with the tulip.   My research reveals a Fridl M. Blumenthal, b. 1905 in Berlin  and died 1998 who knows where, has a piece in the Smithsonian collection and was featured in a show at the University of Chicago in 1966.  I have not seen the mark though.  This may help or confuse.  I'm still searching.  I'll welcome any help.

I believe that the Fridl mark is for Fridl Blumenthal who, with her husband, fled Nazi Germany in 1937, coming to Pittsburgh and then New Jersey and later to Park Forest, Illinois.  After reading a book about wire jewelry, Fridl started creating jewelry. She studied with Chicago silversmith Anna Halasi. In 1948, she walked into the Georg Jensen store and received a contract for future work.  She also created for Cooper in Philadelphia and Marshall Field in Chicago.  After working with silver for many years, she switched to gold.  Following her husband to Belgium, her proximity to Dusseldorf where she fortunate to be able to study with Friedrich Becker.  She used stones cut by Bernd Munsteiner. Most of her work is small-scale sculpture and jewelry of "never failing" interest.

 information provided by Marbeth Schon

Born Frieda Michaelis in 1905 in Berlin Germany
Trained as a sculptor
Married my father, Bernard Blumenthal in 1934 in Berlin Germany and
subsequently used the name Frieda M. Blumenthal
Emigrated to the United States in 1937
Died 1998 in Bethesda, Maryland.

She spent many years making jewelry, first in silver and then in gold.  As
an artist she used the name Fridl Blumenthal and the trademark that is
shown in the attached file.  The graphic below her name is a stylized
version of the German name Blumenthal.  In German, "blumen" is the word for
flower and "thal" is the word for valley.

information provided by Dr. Ralph Blumenthal
Holmdel, NJ

Clemens Friedell
Though born in the United States, near New Orleans, Clemens Friedell (1872 - 1963) was educated in Austria where he first learned to work with silver. At the age of seventeen, he returned to the United States, to Texas, and, in 1901, went to work for Gorham in Providence, Rhode Island, working for seven years on their Martelé handwrought line.  In 1911 he found his way to Pasadena, California, where he gained notoriety for his "orange blossom set" for brewing tycoon E. R. Maier -- "107 pieces reminiscent of Martelé, with service for 18 and several large elaborate items including a 28-inch tall centerpiece.   Maier paid him $15,000.  It took over a year to make, used 2,200 ounces of silver, and was decorated with over 10,000 hand-chased orange blossoms."

Friedell gained notoriety with Pasadena carriage trade for whom he created a "series of heavy silver 'equine portrait plaques' for his horse-loving customers. He received numerous commissions, and was highly sought after as a maker of trophies for organizations including the one that ran the Tournament of Roses parade.  He set up shop in the Hotel Maryland, one of Pasadena's swankier resorts, and did well enough to retire in 1921 to Texas. " In 1927 he moved back to California and up shop on Pasadena's main street where he remained until his death in 1963.

Information from Chicago Silver

"OSF, 826S" I am curious to know why this brooch ended up with such a high final price. (I have no connection to the seller or to the buyer.) Seller describes it as: Size is 3 1/2" tall x 2 3/4" wide. Signed on the back "OSF" and "826S".

submitted by Evelyn

I've been missing in action for a while, but couldn't resist commenting on this one as it comes from my home town.
OSF is the hallmark of Otto S. Friis of Kolding, Denmark. This is a very early example of the Danish Arts & Crafts movement. The maker is contemporaneous with the great Torvald Binderboll, who defined the Danish Arts & Crafts movement in many mediums, most notably in silver and ceramics, though he is also represented in museums by his furniture (he was a sculptor by education).

Otto Strange Friis is mentioned once in Jacob Thage's Danske Smykker/Danish Jewelry. On page 126 there is a picture of a lovely and delicate necklace produced somewhere between 1905-10. Here is it said that Friis exhibited his work in the first Skonvirke exhibition in 1907, and his work was praised on par with Georg Jensen and Erik Magnussen. The eBay piece was produced in the timeframe 1893 to about 1915 in accordance with the 826s silver standard. It could certainly be earlier in that time frame rather than later as many silversmiths switched earlier on to the 830s silver standard.
Of note is that the piece pictured in Thage's book is in the collection of Jorg Schwandt, a dealer and collector of note in Berlin. Schwandt is one of the foremost experts on Danish silver of the last century or so, and has co-authored several museum catalogs/books published by the Museum at Koldinghus ( While the eBay piece in no way approaches either the delicacy or the workmanship of the piece illustrated in Danish Smykker/Danish Jewelry, it is interesting in its use of coral and amber, both carved and cabbed. It is a work by a recognized master who produced very little.

The rarity and origin of the piece, even though it was NOT spectacular, set the price.

information provided by Annette R. Floystrup



(Example is a snail pendant (no metal mark but I'll bet $$ it's Sterling - or better). Hollow with a lid that opens to reveal the name "UGO FRILLI" )

submitted by Lisa Youell


(example is a ring that is signed simply "FROM" and under that "925 S" I assumed, when I got it, that it was an N.E. From piece, since it certainly looks like his style -- a simple circular setting, with an oxidized inner, recessed, circle, in the middle of which sits a cabochon that looks like genuine amber. In any case, it is an amber-colored stone of some sort, and the ring has a definite, Scandinavian moderinst feel to it. Is someone pulling a fast one, or could this be a real N.E. From piece without the initials and without the "Denmark?" Did N.E. From ever sign his work with just the last name?)

submitted by Roasalie Isaacs

Hi silver forum and Rosalie,yes your brooch will be N.E. From which is Niels Erik From,the stone used is reconsituted amber,which is amber pieces that have been pressed together the stone will have a brown swirls to it,he never used block amber which is natrual amber,untreated.n.E.From was born in 1908 and trained as a silversmith in Denmark,in 1931 from opened his own shop selling his designs as well as other jewellery designs,from this he went on to build a factory,exporting his designs across Europe,in 1960 he collaborated with his son in law to form a management team and Hilmer Jensen {N.E. From son in law} joined the firm and 1966 and took over the firm in 1986 after N.E. From died.The factory is now closed but the building is still there today with all the tools in tact and many items of froms work,which there grand daughter now owns,a dealer and some of this jewellery is still being sold through some outlets even though the factory is closed.

Froms designs were always floral,the other designer that worked for the company in the 60s and 70s designed theabstract forms we see, I can not think of his name at presant but will post it when i can remember.Most of the marks vary,rings tend to just carry from 925s marks due to the space and some other items also carried this mark,really it is the style that will guild you to a time frame and not the hallmarks absracts froms are from the 60s and 70s floral designs from the 50s.

information provided by Vanessa Paterson

I have a number of pieces by N.E. From. One of the pins is similar in design to the necklace set in Fred R's book (top right photo p105), and is stamped Sterling Denmark NE FROM on the back, with no "925" designation. Is this an earlier (ie. 1960s? 70s?) mark of the company?


subitted by Sheryl

"FTC, STERLING, 10K" I recently acquired a very unusual silver pendant (or charm) of a Holster w/removable gun. It measures 1.25 inches tall and the gun comes out of the holster. Back of holster says: Sterling 10K FCT. Old patina through out. Holster has 2 colors, gold and silver. Small red stones? in each. At the end of the gun barrel, on the back, is a peg,
almost a T, that slides in a groove in the holster to make it slide in and out of the holster. Can anyone help with the mark? 

submitted by  Linda from NC

"COF" Denmark


(Example was a piece of Danish jewelry marked "COF"

submitted by Lilith

The mark COF is for Carl Ove Frydensberg of Copenhagen, who had this mark registered from 1949 to 1982.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

"JF" (Native American)  A squash blossom necklace in gold and turquoise signed JF, 70's or much newer, very up scale looking.

Thankyou in advance,

submitted by Sheila Pamfiloff 
I recently acquired a nice Arts & Crafts enamel pendant from Birmingham, c.1907. It's hallmarked on the back and has the maker's mark, "J.F." (pretty sure that's an "F" not a "P"). Does anyone know who this maker was? 

Thanks very much!

submitted by Marbeth Schon

James Fenton is the maker. I don't have any additional information on this maker, perhaps someone else in the group will be able to provide additional info

information provided by Beth

Hi Silver forum and Marbeth,the name of the designer is James Fenton he is well known but often his work is not so nice however your pendant looks really nice.

information provided by  Vanessa Paterson

"WF" (with the "F "coming off the "W") (Example is a pendant, a large egg shaped filigree and floral piece with pearls and colored stones. It's marked 585 with a WF, with the F coming off of the W. This one is out of my normal collecting realm. I can't decide whether it's Deco or later and determine the country of origin. pic  pic)

submitted by Beth Scott

(Example is a Georg Jensen necklace and matching bracelet. The pieces are marked Sterling (of course), Georg Jensen, USA with a design number (can't remember it off hand), with a triangle divided in half and in one half is the letter L and in the other half the letter F. I have a pin and earrings done by this same designer but they aren't marked Jensen, just Sterling with a design number and LF. )

submitted by Jackie

The mark you describe is that of Laurence Foss, who apprenticed with Edward Everett Oakes in Boston, and also designed for Georg Jensen USA when that firm was producing designs by Americans during and shortly after WW II.

information provided by Christie Romero

"LF" inside a diamond shape joined under the capital letters, followed by the numerals "15" slightly raised above the line. Also "STERLING" stamp above it.
This old buckle, slightly Art Nouveau-ish in styling has me puzzled. Somehow I vaguely remember this mark being discussed once before on SilverForum but I may be wrong. 

The sharply incised scrolled pattern appears stamped under high pressure much like other sterling jewelry, such as marcasite based pieces:

The mark is LF inside a < and > joined under the capital letters, followed by the numerals 15 slightly raised above the line. Also STERLING stamp above it.

submitted by Liz/Isabelle Bryman

Hi, Liz and Silver people - How about this, from the 1915 Trademarks book, under sterling silver:

La Secla, Fried & Co., Inc.
97 Chestnut St.
Newark, N.J.

The mark looks the same as your picture.

information provided by Karen Beuning


"Fjerdinstad" (Fjerdingstad?) Can anyone enlighten me with some information on a signature FjERDINSTAD. I think it's for Christian Fjerdinstad...early 1900's. I have a lovely ring
 which has this signature and a very smalL diamond shape w/ another mark  within. Any information I found is not in English ... so help would be geatly appreciated !! It's exquisitely made and needs to be appreciated!

 submitted by Heather 

There is a rather good article on Fjerdingstad in issue 20, 1994 of The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts, published by the Wolfson Foundation of Miami, Florida. It is one of the few things in English I have run across on Fjerdingstad, The title of the article is "Fjerdingstad: A
Franco-Danish Silversmith of the Twentieth Century", by David Allan. The article is not very lengthy, but does include approximately 15 illustrations. 

information provided by Joseph LONZI

'925S STERLING SCF" I recently purchased a set of two-light candelabra in the Danish taste ca. 1930. However, the only marks are:

submitted by TRM
"G" (in a circle) "HAND WROUGHT" The mark on this copper hand hammered bowl has
puzzled me for years. I'd sure appreciate some help on identifying the maker. Marked is
(upright hand, G in circle, HAND WROUGHT )
925S, "G " (in a shield-shaped reserve) The piece in question today was recently purchased by a friend of mine, and I've been unable to come up with anything regarding the mark. It's a fabulous large pendant in silver with gold-colored foil fused over one of the sections. The pendant has reticulated sections, hammered sections, and has been oxidized, and probably lacquered as well. Measures 4" tall by 3-1/2" wide, and it's on a leather thong with a unique closure system that forms a three-dimensional sphere when closed. When open, the two halves look like old-fashioned key and keyhole on their 'business' ends. I've included a close-up of the mark, but it's hard to read as it's been double-stamped. The best I can make out is "925S" and the maker's mark looks like a capitol G in a shield-shaped reserve. My guess is early 70s Scandinavian studio work (as it's completely hand-fabricated.

submitted by Patrick Kapty

Mexican chocker with this mark "G" with an intersecting line.
submitted by Merry Shugart
"AG" I've had this fabulous deco necklace for quite some time and have never been able to quite distinguish the markings let alone figure out who/what they represent. So here goes. With all you great people on the list, I thought I'd see if anyone has any ideas on the signature.I have put up a picture of the front pendant part of the necklace, the reverse showing the basket holding the gorgeous topaz and a picture (though not that good) of the marking on the connector. It appears to me to be 3 dots that form a pyramid, a single dot and then what appears to be the letter A and definitely the letter G.

submitted by Elaine Kula
"STERLING MG" ('M' over 'G') (Example is a handsome pair of agate and sterling cufflinks.They are marked: STERLING MG in block letters, with the M over the G.)

submitted by  Ellen Solway

"NG" (and Scottish hallmarks)

(Example is an enamel pin .I know it's Scottish, from Edinburgh, and made in 1970, with maker's mark "NG" and Scottish hallmarks.The enamel is really a much warmer pinkish lavender surrounding the central brick red/orange enamel.)

submitted by Patrick Kapty

The mark is for Norman Grant (London)

information provided by a SilverForum member

the pendant is designed by a British designer called Norman Grant,who worked in Scotland in the 70s,his early works were big and bold like your pendant,and then became small and commercial.Norman Grant only designed for about 10 years,his work is no-longer in production.

information provided by Vanessa Paterson. Retro Gallery

Please see The Wonderful World of Norman Grant by Vanessa Frisbee, MODERN SILVER magazine.

Illegible mark on sterling bracelet

submitted by Marbeth Schon

As to your illegible marking beginning with the letter G on your Mystery Marks page, I have had two pieces of jewelry in the past which were legible.  The signature is Gerhardt with the last letter T being dragged under the signature to underline it.  Like you, I would like to know more about this silversmith. 

information provided by Rose Griesmeyer

Phyllis 'Larissa' Gahan


Phyllis 'Larissa' Gahan (American, b.1922-d.2003)

In 1942, Gahan graduated from Junior College and studied at A.K. Cross Art School in '43. That same year she graduated from Cross Art School and was the Bomb-a-Dears Poster girl for the week in that same year. She began attending Traphagen School of Design in 1945 for fashion design. During her time in New York several of her paintings were shown in art exhibitions and small galleries. She painted in the Abstract Expressionist style, but her main focus was textiles and fashion. She also sold some of her clothing designs through a boutique on Madison Ave. By 1949 she expressed a strong desire to travel abroad, and she returned to her family home in Florida. It was at this time that she left a collection of modernist brass, copper, and sterling silver jewelry with her sister. There are only 26 known pieces of her jewelry in existence, which are part of the collection she left behind in 1949.

information and photograph courtesy of Myers Fine Art & Antiques Auction Gallery

Soledad Garcia (mark is S.G.)

Soledad Garcia is one of the most recognized Mexican jewelry designers of the 21st century. She designs for Tane, Mexico.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Rachel Gera

Rachel Gera's silver jewelry has adorned such leading celebrities as Elizabeth Taylor and Peter Ustinov. Born in Israel and educated at Jerusalem's Bezalel Academy of Art, Rachel creates three-dimensional silver work, which has won international acclaim. Her style is a blend of both European and Oriental traditions. (from:

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"GESCHUTZT" and a tall thin anchor with a "W" through the center. (Example is a Nouveau pendant with amethyst, blue stone (looks like aquamarine), and pearl drop. It is 800 silver and marked with the German registered mark, GESCHUTZT".)

submitted by Ramona Tung

" GF" over "MW" (in a circle) My question is about a maker.  The mark (if i remember correctly) is GF over MW in a circle.  G-- F-- Metal Works, perhaps?  I have seen this on a number of 1960s-1980s or so brooches.  I am thinking it is some kind of body of
variously skilled smiths.
Fred Glass I'm hoping that someone on the list may have some information to pass along on this designer. I've just acquired a large pin/pendant and earrings, marked Fred Glass 1962. I have had no luck finding references to this artist, and would appreciate any insight that you might provide! 

submitted by Susan Williams 
"GFMW" There is no one style to the pieces I have seen, and also, they have ranged in quality from so-so to very good.

These are the pieces I have handled by this GFMW: -a stepped, trapezoidal piece of silver with a rose quartz cab.  Not that great quality. -a figural design of a needle piercing a wavy piece of "fabric" (which was just unbuffed silver).  Also not impressive quality.-a black oxidized silver frying pan, with a fried egg in its bowl (the white was buffed silver, the yolk a topaz cab).  This was very fine quality and also innovative in its design.

submitted by Paul
Richard Gompf

Richard Gompf, a native of Iowa, attended college in Minnesota and also studied at the California College of Arts and Crafts.  In 1952, while studying with Philip Morton at the University of Minnesota, he became interested in jewelry-making. He developed this interest further while studying with Margaret De Patta at the California College of Arts & Crafts.  Most of his jewelry is made by sand casting and lost wax processes.   Gompf is a member of the San Francisco Metal Arts guild of which he was president from 1977-1986.  His work has been shown in numerous exhibitions both in the US and abroad.  Most recently, in 2008, his work was included in the exhibit, "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"P.G." The last item is a British pin and my best guess is 1914 for the date. It is hallmarked for Chester with maker's initials of "P.G." Perhaps someone recognizes this maker?
"E. GRANT & CO," (most likely E. GRANIT & CO.)
crown, and in a box "813H"and shape of boat


I have a modernist style silver pin.  The mark reads  "E. GRANT & CO."  a  crown, and in a box813Hlshape of boat herelM7.  I'm  stumped!  It's a  lovely pin  and the mark is very distinct.  Can anyone  help me out here?

Could it possibly be " E. Granit" ? I have several pieces of work by E. Granit - a Finnish maker.

information provided by J.L.

"r.j. graves gra-wun '88"

"Ray Graves Arizona"          


(Example is a very large pendant made of brass, silver and steel which was  purposely rusted  for color. The silver and brass have hammering throughout. the pendant measures about The pendant measures about 8" tall from the top of the square wire that hooks into the neckform, and about 6" wide. )

submitted by Patrick Kapty

Can someone provide a bit more information on Raymond Graves, the modernist designer from Scottsdale, AZ - I recently acquired a bolo tie signed with his 'Gra-Wun' signature. It looks to be from the '60's (kitschy road-runner slide in pewter or silver alloy; vinyl braid). Any info at all is appreciated!

submitted by Barbara Starr

Ray Graves is one of the original artist/craftsmen on 5th avenue (Scottsdale). He is just a few doors down from H. Fred Skaggs.  He was very active in the Arizona Craftsman Society and was Featured in American Craft Magazine regarding crafts in AZ.  Has had some famous clients...including Sonny and Cher and won numerous awards.

Gra-Wun opened in the heart of Scottsdale Fifth Avenue Shops in 1959. The name Gra-Wun is a composite of two names, the first being Graves and the second taken from an early business partner Berta Wunderlich. The small
studio had a wonderful intimate quality selling not only jewelry created by Ray Graves but also the jewelry of his daughter Pattie, a recognized designer in her own right. Besides jewelry you could find a variety of unique decorative items. According to Graves the only item they sold that was carried in other stores was (Paolo) Soleri bells...a long time friend of Graves.

With the incorporation all types of material in his work over the years Graves considers himself a jeweler/craftsman. Stylistically, he was not limited. Pieces can be found in all shapes and sizes figural to abstract. By the late 1960s he had established a large following with markets from
Australia to Norway all drawn to abstract designs of Ray Graves.

Scottsdale's Fifth Avenues shops have seen several changes since the late 1970s, not all for the good. Gra-Wun along with a hand full of other shop have tried to survive the changes. Those original to the famed 5th Avenue Shops have tried to hold onto their ideals including the importance of the individual craftsman's expression. Sadly, the flood of cheap production imports and tee shirt shops and failing eye sight proved to be too over powering for Gra-Wun Studio, last year they closed their studio doors.

information provided by Shari Miller



Oswaldo Guayasmin (1919-199) was a mater Ecuadorian painter, sculptor and jeweler. Please see:

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"H" (in a circle) "925S, STERLING, NORWAY"


Great pair of earrings. Really surprised that I did not find this mark in my references. They are marked 925S with an "H" in a circle. Below that is "STERLING" & below that is "NORWAY".

submitted by Sande
"H" (in a circle) "925S, STERLING, NORWAY" the make is actually Ivar Holth

information provided by Rachel White
"800" and "H" over "K" Can anyone please share any information and/or opinions about this piece? I believe the stone is carnelian. The craftsmanship is wonderful. The detail in the repousse is incredible.

It is marked 800 and with a makers mark that may be an H over a K. Is it German? Secessionist?

submitted by Karen Madsen
wide "H" and what appears to be a turtle with it's head coming from it's shell


I found a sterling and turquoise cross necklace that appears to have some age and may be Zuni and was wondering if anyone was familiar with the mark which is a large wide "H" and what appears to be a turtle with it's head coming up from the shell. The piece has a wonderful chain (paper clip type links) and a cross pendant--the type with trefoils on the top and cross bars. The cross is deeply channel set with square turquoise pieces.

submitted by Marbeth Schon
Doris Hall

Doris Hall (1907 - 2000) graduated from the Cleveland Institute in 1929 and during the 1940s opened a gallery and studio in Gloucester, Massachusetts. She and her husband, Kalman Kubinyi later opened a studio/gallery in downtown Boston and lastly, a studio in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

Hall exhibited in the Cleveland Museum of Art annual May Show throughout the 1930s.  She also exhibited at the Walker Art Center in 1948. She originated the idea of making enamel "paintings" by treating her copper (or silver) as a canvas and drawing in a dried layer of opalescent crackle to produce an oxidized line. 

This piece is pictured in " Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" on page 149.  More pictures of her work as well as biographical information can be found in Painting with Fire, Masters of Enameling in America by Bernard N. Jazzar and Harold B. Nelson.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Hubert Harmon

Hubert Harmon arrived in Taxco in 1940 where he set up a small workshop of silversmiths to interpret his fresh, whimsical designs in metal.  His work is rare, always imaginative, and highly collectible.

Information can be found in Mexican Silver by Carole Berk and Penny Morrill, and "William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance."  His work was included in the traveling exhibit, "William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance."

(You can order Mexican Silver or Silver Masters of Mexico from MODERN SILVER magazine books)

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Celia Harms

Please email if you have more information on this designer. Thank you!
"C. Heisler" Hello! I have a very heavy silver salver with the hallmark of C. Heisler and several other smaller marks. Is anyone familiar with this name? I'd say the salver is either late Victorian or up to the Twenties. Thanks for any help you can offer!

submitted by Jenny
"C" inside the upper part of an "H" with an "F" inside the lower part  A question for the silver ³font of knowledge². I have a rather small (5² total length) spoon with a fat bowl. It has a heavy handle with and applied design of dots and curves and a large faceted knob on the top. There are some dots tapped into the bowl on front and back were it attaches to the
handle. It  has considerable wear. There are three hallmarks on the side of the bowl as follows  I or J AS in a rectangle, three castle towers in an oval and the initials C inside the upper part of an H with an F inside the lower part all inside another smaller oval.  The numeral 14 is below the 3 towers

Your spoon is Danish.  The 3 towers mark stands for STERLING silver ( 2 towers
mark means silver plate) and the 2 digit number just under the towers is the date (in this case 1914). The oval with CHF is the assayer's mark for Christian F. Heise, whose term was from 1904-1932.

Information provided by Annette 

Clifford Herrold

Clifford Herrold studied at the Institute of Design in Chicago and recived his B.A. from Central Oklahoma State College, his M.S. from Colorado State College, and his Education Degree from Stanford University in California.  He became an associate professor of art at Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls.  Most of his work, which he sold from his studio, was done in sterling silver alone or in sterling combined with semi-precious stones and various woods.

From "Modernist Jewelry, 1930 - 1960," by Marbeth Schon

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"eHa" I have a pair of marcasite earrings marked sterling Germany, and with a strong lens, a makers mark of eHa, each letter block style caps, the e and a smaller than the central H, and a line running through all three as the crossbar. The earrings are a fancy drop earrings with a huge blue stone. I can provide pix later, but I wondered if this mark sounded familiar to anyone. Thanks

submitted by Sandra

"HGi or HGj, Denmark, 925 sterling" I cannot identify these two silver marks. One is a miniature silver pitcher which looks very much like the ones I've seen in my George Jensen book, but the mark has me baffled it reads "HGi or HGj, Denmark, 925 sterling". 

submitted by  Gloria
"H H" (black resin with silver inlays)

This large brooch appears to be black resin with silver inlays. Whether it's "real" silver, I have no idea. I'm curious about the mark on the sticky label at the back of the brooch: HH Danish Original. Any thoughts on who this might be?

Though I am a serious collector of Danish silver from the 20th century, I do not know this company. I have seen their jewelry many times. I only want to catagorically state - this "HH" has NO connection whatsoever to the Hans Hansen company of Kolding, Denmark.

Some past eBay auctions have occasionally made this erroneous attribution.

information provided by Annette Floystrup

"GCH" Next is an Arts & Crafts bar Pin.....Marked GCH on the Clasp? 

submitted by Roger Erickson


Matti Hyvarninen

(Examples area few Finnish pieces that have a very Bjorn Weckstrom (Lapponia) look to them. The mark is "MJH" with the turku city mark and date marks from the early to mid 70's. The design and construction is extremely good.)

submitted by Nancy Hunt

The "MJH" mark (with Turku city mark and date mark for the 70s) is for 'SIRO KORU KY Hyvarinen', which owned the mark from 1958 to at least 1995. I'm assuming that 'Hyvarinen' (which BTW has the two dots over the A) is the last name of the owner/designer, but I'm not sure.

Matti Hyvarinen's company is Siro Koru, the pieces are sometimes also marked with the company name. This mark has been registered to his company since 1958.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

The maker is Matti Hyvärinen and you should have another name in also on the piece this designer worked in the 70s and his work is sometime mistaken for Bjorn Weckstromluck.

information provided by Vanessa Paterson retro gallery

"OGH, 925S" (example is a neat very plain sterling pin which is marked OGH in an oval and 925S.)

submitted by Jackie Weeks

The mark OGH 925S may be that of the Swedish  smith, Olof Gunnar Hjertzell, with a shop in Stockholm during mid 1930s, and briefly using the mark again during the 1944-45 period.

information provided by Fred Rezazadeh


I have a pair of Jensen like grape candlesticks with this mark. "OGH" in an oval, "STERLING", "925S" and "DENMARK".

information provided by Thomas Donahue

"SMH, STERLING" Above is the URL for a mod pearl pin I recently acquired. It is marked SMH STERLING. Anyone familiar with this maker?

submitted by Ellen 


(Example is a modern sterling rigid bangle. It looks to be Scandanavian, it's hallmarked with the initials T.J.H. then three hallmarks, the first two I can't make out, the last an F in a square.)

submitted by Adrienne

The piece in question with the TJH mark may be that of H Hedstroms Guldsmedsverkstad of Sweden in business in early 1940s. This firm was located in Orebro with the city mark of "O" in a circle and the few pieces that I have seen always have the Swedish triple crown mark which may be the mark that is not legible on your piece. However, the "F" in the square mark on your piece signifies that it was made, if Swedish, in the city of Falun. Although quite possible, I have personally never seen a Hedstrom piece with the Falun City mark.

information provided by Fred Rezazadeh

I saw an entry in the mystery marks for a bangle with a TJH mark and other illegible marks. I have a  celtic style gorgeous bangle marked TJH 925 and what looks like 925 on scales (weighing scales). The fourth mark looks like the Hibernia mark. I believe that this is the hallmark of The Jewellery House in Dublin, in business since the 40's or 50's. They also make John Rocha jewelry.

information provided by Karen Beuning
double ''H"s (Hans Hansen)


(Example is an item which bears only the double "H"s and not the script Hans Hansen signature) Would such a piece be earlier? later? Just so you are not confused, the item I am asking about also says 925S and DEMARK; there it is not question that it is authentic.

submitted by Rosalie Isaacs

According to the monograph (exhibition catalog) on Karl Gustav Hansen, the company's double H mark was in use from 1947 to circa 1969. It was used concurrently with the script signature mark (of which there were two different versions before and after 1950). From what I can tell from the Danish/German text, the double H mark was used when there wasn't enough room for the full script signature. This is what the caption says:"De forkortede maerker anvendes, hvor der ikke er plads til fuld 'Hans Hansen'-signatur (gaelder ogsa meget sma korpus- og bestikdele)."There are Danish letters I can't reproduce in the above, but if you read Danish, I'm sure you can figure it out.

information provided by Christie Romero

The double "H", or the mark that has been described as a "picket fence", is two "H"s sharing a single cross bar. This mark can generally be dated between 1947-1969. The exceptions are that this mark, along with the other "short" hallmarks ("HaH" - 1937-1947 and "HaH" 1947-1991) has also been used on small hollowware and flatware pieces where room for the hallmarks is a constraint to stamping the full script "Hans Hansen".

[Note that the difference between the two "HaH" stamps is one of typeface, and is subtle to discern, but evident when one has seen a few of them.]

There is one further dating for Hans Hansen possible from the script hallmark. Pre-1950, the return stroke from the final "N" in "Hansen" extends back under the whole last name. Post-1950, the return stroke only extends halfway back under the final 2-3 letters "-sen".

The small hallmarks, most usually the "HaH" are also turning up on corporately issued copies of original Hans Hansen pieces. (These are often misread as "H&H".) The Hans Hansen silversmithy was sold in the fall of 1991 to the Royal Scandinavian Corporation, owner of Georg Jensen, Royal Copenhagen, Bing & Grondahl, and other fine craft lines. The corporate copies of the Hansen designs are double stamped with both the post-1945 "Georg Jensen" in a circle of dots hallmark and the "HaH". I have seen about 10 copied designs so far.

There is a terrible misconception circulating (especially on eBay) that Hans Hansen was a designer for Georg Jensen. This has arisen, as far as I can tell, from the Drucker book, which rightly lists Karl Gustav Hansen's personal hallmark (KGH) on the list of people who designed for Georg Jensen....BUT...Hans Hansen (1884 - 1940) was apprenticed at Carl M. Cohr in Fredericica, and did not work for Georg Jensen. The "Hans H. Hansen" (HHH) and "Hans H. Hansen, Jr." (HH) listed in Drucker are not related to the Kolding silversmith family. [ I urge forum members to remember that Hans Hansen and Georg Jensen are as common in Denmark as John Smith is in the US...and most Hansen's and Jensen's are not related at all due to Old Norse patronymic naming conventions.]

Hans Hansen's son, Karl Gustav Hansen (1914- ), the primary designer for Hans Hansen hollowware, in no way had a significant working relationship with the Georg Jensen silversmithy. He did occasionally design for other companies in noted series produced by them, such as his '70's design for the Christmas spoon and fork series by Anton Michelsen. Additionally, his earliest hollowware designs do show the influence of Einar Olsen, who came from the Georg Jensen shop to work for Hans Hansen.

Grandson Hans Hansen, Jr. (1946 - 1972) finished out his apprenticeship at the Georg Jensen silversmithy to learn technique, but was not known as a designer for them. He is best remembered for a fine flatware set he designed for "Hans Hansen", shortly before his untimely death called, Amalie. Decades after his death, his father has made some of his early designs from drawings left by his young son, including a teapot he designed for his mother when he was only 8. These pieces can be seen in the Museum at Koldinghus (, and show his great promise and the tragedy of Hans Hansen, Jr. early death.

information provided by Annette Floystrup

"Halberstadt, Willy Jagert" The item is a 14k and amber ring, beautifully done with a wonderful signature, Halberstadt, Willy Jagert or it might be Fagert (it's signed in cursive and it's hard to tell) and then handmade in Denmark.

submittted by Jackie Weeks

"Maida Heatter" (Example is a silver bird signed "Maida Heatter".)

submitted by Lilith

"STERLING, ED HARRIS" (Example is a pair of cufflinks with blue agate. They are signed STERLING ED HARRIS.)

submitted by Ellen Solway

Blanche Hess Have you ever heard of an upstate NY silversmith by the name of Blanche Hess? She worked in the late 60s-70s, often mounting attractive US stones in simple mounts. I believe she sold out of a NYC gallery

submitted by .Christie Romero

Darla Hesse

I just dug into a HUGE box of my aunties and found a few modernist
items. This bracelet it interesting but I can not find anything on this
artist...wondering if anyone knows anything about her. TIA for any help!
Best to all, Susan

Apparently she's a designer from Toronto.


Aksel Holmson I picked up a Set of Sterling Silver with a Gold overlay with a Super Cobalt Blue Enamel in a Leaf design. 2 questions I hope you can help me with...first it is marked Sterling Norway 925S with what Looks like 2 interlocked sideways V's is this Aksel Is their work collected? Also the Earrings and necklace Each came in their what I believe to be their Original Boxes...the insides are signed L O Wibergs Eftr. Juvelerar Vasternggatan 75 Stockholm. What do you think Orginal boxes??
submitted by  Roger

What you describe as "2 interlocked sideways V's" is the mark of Aksel Holmsen and the jewelry is indeed  collectible. The boxes, however, are not original. They  belong to L O Wilbergs Eftr of Stockholm and they are circa 1939-46 The firm used the mark L O Wilbergs Eftr AB after 1946 and was in operation till 1970s. 

submitted by Fred Rezazadeh


"H J" (superimposed)


(Example is a pair of gothic style earrings marked with superimposed letters "H" and "J" and the words "HONAS(?) SILVER".)

submitted by Lisa Youell

HJ 830S This is the mark for Haakon Jacobsen, Svolaer, Norway. The mark was first used in 1969.

information provided by Geri Makris
"HRo, 925S"  
Else and Paul Hughes

For a great article on Else and Paul Hughes, please see  MODERN SILVER magazine article, Else Berntsen Hughes, in memoriam  by B. Lennart Persson and Svein G. Josefsen.




Can anyone point me in the right direction for some info on this big Danish ring I have. It has on it the name "J Hull" and also the marks "B+D", and "Denmark".

 submitted by Mimi 

Can't tell you a lot about Jacob Hull, other than that most of his pieces are plated base metal, though I have seen the occasional sterling piece. Most of them look to be from the 60s/70s, and are made by the same company as your piece, Buch and Deichmann (spelling?). I've seen a great deal of other pieces on eBay etc by this company, most of them seemed to be some variety of stylish modern costume jewelry. It's all very interesting stuff, and looks to be entirely hand-fabricated for the most part.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

I would very much appreciate help in getting information on these three items. The first is a large bracelet signed Jacob Hull or Kull and is said to be from Copenhagen in 1982. Weckstrom made a similar ring with a large amethyst.

Jacob Hull is a fairly well known Danish designer. I have had his pieces and they are usually quite interesting designs. There is a photo of one of his pieces in "Collectible Silver Jewelry" by Fred Rezazadeh, pg. 105. Fred says that "most of Jacob Hull's jewelry was made in heavy silver plate." If your
piece is not marked otherwise, that may be the case. I believe most of the pieces I've seen are from the 1960s.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Erika Hult de Corral

Erika Hult de Corral was an award-winning designer who studied at the Parsons School of Design in Paris.  She worked with Sigfrido Pineda and Enrique Ledesma in Taxco before opening her own workshop.  She owns and operates shops in Puerto Vallarta.

Taken from "Mexican Silver Trade and Hallmarks" by Bille Hougart

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"V.A.H." I recently acquired a great modernist hinged collar with pendant. It is a lovely creation but I can find no reference to a designer who signs their work V.A.H.
Apart from "sterling" the initials are the only marks on the collar. Anyone ever heard of V.A.H.?

Thanks for any assist.

sibmitted by mimi 
Hurst Kingsbury

Hurst Kingsbury ( Joan Hurst and Jill Kingsbury) were two exceptional woman designers who created modernist jewelry in New York City in the 1940s and 1950s.  Their work was usually constructed from cut, biomorphic shapes.  Joan Hurst was a graduate of the Art Students League and Jill Kingsbury was influenced by the art of theatre and dance.  Their pieces were always well designed and are of good quality.  They are also rare and hard to find.

Their work is featured in Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.

Submitted by Marbeth Schon

Wm. Hutton & Sons
"WH & S Angle Plate"
I also have this mark below of WH & S Angle Plate with a hallmark in the center.  I believe this is Wm. Hutton & Sons but stand to be corrected.  I'm interested in what this angle plate means and the logo.  Any information you can share is appreciated.

Here is an interesting response re: the "angle plate" mark on my WH & S flatware I got from another silver forum:
"Yes, it is William Hutton and the other mark does not mean anything in particular, except perhaps to Mr. Hutton, who used it in nearly all his marks. I have not seen the interesting "angle plate" before, but suspect it is similar to the US "sectional plate" where a heavier layer of silver was plated to those points which wore out fastest."

Submitted by Andrienne

"OPI" (in a rectangle)
Swedish three crowns mark
(Example is a pair of earrings....the mark is Swedish, three crowns, sterling mark and the initials or name OPI in a date mark. . I'd say the earrings were 60s or 70s)

submitted by Vanessa Frisbee

There were several Swedish silversmiths that used the initials "OPI." If the piece has the Falkoping City mark and is circa 1960s or 70s it was most likely made by "Opifors AB," in operation during 1968-1987 period. The same initials with the same city mark was used by "Ekstrom Sweden AB" beginning in 1985.

information provided by Fred Rezazadeh

Bernard Instone I jusr went to the above website to read the article by Richard Whitehouse, and at the bottom of the very first page I saw a picture of a silver and enamel brooch by Bernard Instone.

I just found a brooch which looks identical except the enamel colours are red/white/blue, but there are no markings at all on it to indicate maker or silver content.  It does test silver, and has a nice old fashioned c-clasp on the back.

Can anyone tell me if Bernard Instone always signed his work, or if it has been copied a great deal.  I can send a picture as an attachment to anyone who is interested.

submitted by Lis Bianco

Bernard Instone, was a major manufacture of jewellery from the arts and     craft period he did work for many of Britain's major arts and Crafts movement. A lot of the early pieces are in fact without marks due to the costs of sending to the assay office.

 So to identify a piece you would look at several things  the quality of a     piece, (as in well made,) the shape of the leaves, and enamels used,  stones used, etc. It take years of handling and looking at this type of work to   know who made them.    However the leaves are most designers signature.

There is a good book printed by Schiffer on the arts and craft movement. Some one here may recall it title and cost. As to your piece if it is identical in everyway apart from the enamel being of a different colour, then I would say it is Bernard Instone. The Enamel ork is his production line which came out around the 1915/20s
His early work is amazing, and the family still live here in England  today with some in Australia.

information provided by Vanessa Paterson. Retro Gallery

"IONA, AR" I just acquired two silver brooches with the word "Iona" and "AR" on the back. No other markings. They have Victorian style heavy pin and "C" closure, but they are kinda "Arts and Craftsy" and a bit "Jensen" like in style. Any clues?

submitted by Mimi 

I had a tiny cross similar to the style you describe and
with the AR IONA marks. the buyer turned out to be a descendent of the maker
and was kind enough to provide me the following info;

information provided by Susan Crosby

two bears standing and facing left, "AJ" (in an octagon)
" 0.935", a Serial number "63799"and a numeral 5 printed separately
While in England on vacation I picked up a small but pretty pocketwatch in a silver case. Inside the outer case and the inner watch back are the following marks that I have not been able to decipher in the watch collectors books or any reference on silver marks . . 

Most prominent are two bears, standing and facing left . . .

Above them is what appears to be a much smaller bear in a sheild shape also standing and facing left with what might be a numeral under its feet Below all of this is an AJ in an octogon 
There is also a mark: 0.935 a Serial number 63799 and a numeral 5 printed separately.

I believe the watch itself may be at least early to mid 1800's as it is key wound but any help on the silver marks would be greatly appreciated and helpful to me in dating this item. . .

submitted by Scot Coral Springs, FL
"J" with superimposed "W" in the middle of the J (Mexican) I have an enameled sterling fish pin from Mexico. It's marked with a large J with a small superimposed W on the middle of the J.

submitted by Sue Sinclair
"C.J." and crown and thistle hallmarks I have a beautiful silver necklace from Scotland, which is centered with millefiori glass. It has the crown and thistle hallmarks, as well as C.J. Is anyone familiar with this artist? 

submitted by Ellen S

two "J"s back to back, "Denmark 300A" Can anyone tell me anything about the mark / maker and era on this chunky sterling bangle? The stone appears to amethyst quartz, and the mark looks like two J's back to back, Denmark 300A. Any insight greatly appreciated.

submitted by Sheryl


I hope someone out there can help with this maker. The piece I have is a  sterling hair barrette and it is signed Janiye'. I've heard this is a  Japanese designer and that the her pieces are hard to find. Any info will be  appreciated. 

submitted by Donna 

Janiye was a Japanese-born designer who had a shop on lower Newbury Street (165 Newbury St.) in Boston. Actually, the shop is still there, but Janiye died in 1981, according to this website:
(she's listed under her real name, MIYE MATSUKATA).
I do see Janiye pieces here and there, being in Massachusetts. I'm not sure if the pieces still being sold at the shop still bear the Janiye mark.

information provided by Marilyn in central MA

Georg Jensen marks)



As I peruse both auction sites and, occasionally, individual websites I notice pieces of Georg Jensen jewelry with marks that are said to be pre-1930 combined with "sterling" or "925S". My understanding of the available literature is that sterling silver (.925) was not adopted by Jensen until circa. 1930. My questions are:

1. If this is true, is it correct to state that, no matter what the makers mark, the piece dates from 1930?
2. Does the Jensen silversmithy use "older" marks on "newer" pieces?

If the answers to these questions are yes, then I see a lot of pieces inaccurately described by sellers and bidders overpaying in the on-line auction markets. 

MY understanding of marks in general is that there are no absolutes - there are always exceptions! It is USUALLY true that the earliest Jensen marks are found on 826 and 830 silver. But there is an exception pictured in my second edition on page 250. This brooch is a documented 1905 design (documented by the GJ museum), but this particular example IS marked "925 sterling" with the early superimposed GJ mark that was used from 1904 to circa 1920.

According to several Jensen sources, including the Renwick Gallery catalog and the book by Janet Drucker, anomalies in Jensen marks do occur. As I wrote on page 243 of WJ2, "The grade of silver in pieces dating from the mid-teens through the twenties is 830 OR (emphasis added) 925; after 1933, the company went to the sterling standard of 925 exclusively."

The answer your second question, Jan, is no. Many, many early designs by Georg himself (and others) remained/remain in production, and are marked with the mark in use at the time the piece itself was made. But again, there may be exceptions to this "rule"!

information provided by Christie Romero

Really this question is a lot more complex than a simple yes or no. First of all, remember that jewelry manufacturers have never intended their company marks to be used for the purposes of circa-dating. A maker's mark is basically a trademark that is applied with a metal stamp to the item of jewelry sometime during it's manufacture. Sometimes there is more than one stamp in the workshop, circumstances occur, and old marks can get stamped on pieces from newer periods. There is no intent to mislead, the workers had a 
job to complete. However, the mistaken use of a quality mark could be much more serious. Here again, remember that quality marks were never intended to be used for circa dating purposes either, except in the few cases where a 
quality mark is used in conjunction with a date mark. The quality mark was used to attest to the minimum percentage of the metal used in the item marked, and was stamped on the item to fulfill the laws or regulations of either the country of origin, and/or the intended country in which the item was to be marketed. Thus items made for the home market, Denmark, would be in 826 or 830 silver, while items intended for the British or American markets would be sterling ie 925.
Seem confusing? It is confusing. There are no black and white answers to questions of this nature, only general guidelines with lots of exceptions.
Best regards,

information provided by Patrick Kapty

I was lucky enough today to find the Georg Jensen dove brooch pictured on page 106 of Fred's silver book, but I have a couple of questions about the mark.

The mark on the back of my brooch reads: George Jensen in a dotted oval, 925S, Denmark, 134.

According to the description in the book, this dove pin was designed by Mohl-Hansen for Jensen in 1904, but on page 99 it shows this mark as the one used after 1946. Huh?

Also, what does the 134 designate?

Thanks for any assistance.

submitted by Sheryl

It may be correct that the piece was designed back in 1906, however the fact that it has a Jensen bench mark for post 1945 means that the piece you own was made at a later date some of Jensen pieces have been in production for nearly 100 years. The company changed it Bench mark every now and again but since 1945 it has not so your piece was designed in 1906 and is still in production after 1945.

information provided by Vanessa Paterson 

"H.J. DENMARK," ( and underneath a lovely relief of a  swimming fish, whale, with upturned tail)

A silver mug, with  lid, marked   H.J. DENMARK, and underneath a lovely relief of a  swimming fish, whale, with upturned tail.  pls see if you can help me with  this.

submitted by jr

"JJ" inside of diamond with a vertical line separating the two 

Does anyone know this mark-- JJ inside of diamond with a vertical line separating the two js.  and one other it looks like a lower case g y with an s under the bowl of the y.

submitted by Rich

Hello, the "JJ inside of a diamond with a vertical line separating the two" mystery mark in your list is the maker's mark of Judith Jack. Judith Jack started making "vintage" retro jewellery in the 1970s, inspired by pieces from the 1920s, 30s and 40s. Of course, her earlier pieces are now vintage themselves and of great quality. For more information on Judith Jack, please see  which provides the history of this jeweller and shows examples of her work.

information provided by Diana

Jorgen Jensen Among the Danish producers, the most commonly found is Joergen Jensen. (I am
using "oe" as a replacement for the Danish letter that looks like an "o" with a diagonal slash through it as not all e-mail programs support it in the format that I can generate it in.) Joergen Jensen is OFTEN confused with Georg Jensen, I guess people think the names are so similar that it must be him. Not so. Let me stress that "Jensen" is as common a name as "Smith" in Denmark, and that most Jensens, like most Smiths are absolutely unrelated. Many pewter pieces are really stunning, and have the advantage of being much, much cheaper than sterling, so therefore are more commonly found.

information provided by Annette R. Floystrup
"J  STERLING"  I purchased this interesting pin at the Flea Market Saturday, and have queried my CJ friends
as to what they thought it represented and if they might be familiar with the maker. ral consensus is that it depicts "runes" and may even tell a story, which was most helpful in that it probably means it's Scandinavian in
origin. It's about 4" tall, marked "Sterling" and a block capital "J' on the back. The J is probably die-stamped (terminology correct?), rather than hand engraved.
submitted by Myrna Seale
"J Sterling C" I know this is a long shot, but I have an absolutely incredible Native American huge pendant - 6 1/2" x 3 1/8", encrusted with turquoise and hanging from a heavy and gorgeous handmade chain.  Signed "J Sterling C", I was wondering if anyone recognized the maker.  I don't often handle NA items because of my lack of knowledge, but you can really tell this one is very well done.  

submitted by Nora
"AJ Sterling Denmark" Hello Silver Lovers!  I bought this Sterling pendant a while back and can't find any info on the maker, it's stamped:  A J .925S  Denmark.  Mod design with Onyx.  Any help would be appreciated.  

submitted by  Joanne, Canada
AJ (sterling Denmark) is registered to Arne Johansen of Roskilde, and has been since 1954.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

"GI "in a beaded circle, "838", also in a beaded circle, "Denmark, 10"   The marks are 1) a GI in a beaded circle. 2) 838, also in a beaded circle 3) Denmark 4) 10   The necklace is composed of two different design links. One type link is either a cabbage or a rose, and is circular; the other is a very scandinavian art nouveau looking design. It has what look sort of like a pair of handle bar moustaches, one top, one inverted on the bottom. In the center is a circle of gadroon work (silver beads) and a plain silver circle mount with either a grey blue stone or grey blue glass. The stone is about 1/8 in diameter. The whole link is less than about an inch long. It is designed with a good bit of oxidation. Does anyone know if this necklace might really be jensen, and if so, of what era?

submitted by Jane Heidelberg

There is a photo of the mark of a necklace with the number 10 on page 295 of  Janet Drucker's book, "Georg Jensen, A Tradition of Splendid Silver". It has the "GJ" mark in a square, "830" in a dotted circle and the number "10".  This one would have been made later than yours as the GJ in a square is a later mark. On page 67 of the same book is a photograph of the mark on the back of necklace #9. This mark seems to match the description of the mark on your necklace except you may have read the 830 mark as 838. I believe the correct mark would be "GI" in a dotted circle, "830" in a dotted circle, and the number 10. I don't know what necklace #10 looks like, but your description certainly fits similar early necklace designs.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"HGJ, DENMARK, 925, STERLING"  I cannot identify these two silver marks. One is a miniature silver pitcher which looks very much like the ones I've seen in my George Jensen book, but the mark has me baffled it reads "HGi or HGj, Denmark, 925 sterling". 

submitted by Gloria

Your Danish piece is by the firm of Henning Jensen of Roskilde, if the mark 
is HGJ. (I don't see a registered mark for the other possibility you mentioned in your post.) They were in operation from 1929 to 1969.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

"H.J. 830S" I have a Scandinavian pendant that I haven't been able
to identify the maker's mark for: As best as I can tell, it is marked, "H.J. 830S"

Many thanks for your help.

submitted by Nancy

"NJ" (with Georg Jensen mark)KRA
I've had many Jensen silver pieces over the years but never one with the mark of an NJ in a box. Can anyone tell me who this designer is? It looks like a 1940's piece. 

submitted by Ellen from Santa Cruz

The NJ initials on the Jensen jewelry could possibly be that of Jorgen Ditzel (1921-1961). The couple Nanna and Jorgen Ditzel designed jewelry for both Jensen and A. Michelsen. Most of the jewelry is circa 1950s.

information provided by Fred Rezazadeh

"VJ" (Sweden) (Example is a Swedish hand hammered sterling silver brooch with tiger's eye agate; approximately 1-1/2" wide x 1-1/4" long;  safety catch; hallmarked: "VJ"(maker's mark in a square), town mark for Ljungby, Swedish three crown stamp, "S" (in a hexagon), and "L9" (in a square)for 1961.

Submitted by Marbeth Schon

The mark "VJ" is the registered mark of "Victor Jansson Guldvaru AB" in Lindesberg, used since 1941 and was still in business as of early 1990s.

information provided by Fred Rezazadeh

I have an Art Deco retro Sterling & Rhinestone brooch. It is signed West Germany Sterling and the makers mark looks kind of like 2 letter overlapping slightly a K & P Maybe then it is marked with the number 54. 

submitted by Roger


Frank and Regine Juhls are Norwegian artist/jewelers whose studio is in Lapland. They became well known in the 1960s for their unique style of modernist jewelry, both handwrought and cast.

information provided by Marbeth Schon



Jay Kel"

(example is a dainty pair of sterling and enamel screwback earrings with an oval aquamarine unfoiled stone in the center surrounded by enameled flower petals, marked Jay Kel).

submitted by Linda King

I have two different Vogue ads for Jay Kel Originals, 307 5th  Ave, NY,NY--one in Oct. 1944 and Aug--Sept 1946--both ads are showing brooches [sterling] that sold for 40.00 at that time.

information provided by Pat Seal

Richard Kalbe (Example is a sterling modern necklace in the original box. Signed RK sterling on the necklace and the box says, Richard Kalbe)

submitted by Jackie Weeks


"The strikingly unique art of Pal Kepenyes has been collected by such celebrities as Bob Hope, Robin Leach and Robert Stack."  He was born in Kondoros, Hungary, and began exhibiting in Budapest in 1946. His work had been shown in Paris, London, Berlin, Canada, the United States and Mexico, where he now lives. His work in museum and private collections throughout the world.

"In his miniatures or in his monumental work, he expresses the drama of the man of today: anguish, loneliness in company, desire and/or erotic experiences, trauma, myths, conscience, self-consciousness, wonder and the infinitum, and all in continuous dimensions."

He works in bronze, copper, iron, gold, silver-and precious stones....."In his work, he presents past and future as mere moments in eternity." (information from

information provided by Marbeth Schon


William B. Kerr Co. was a manufacturer of jewelry, flatware and hollow-ware. Established in Newark, New Jersey in 1855. They are listed in the 1915 Edition of the Trademarks of the Jewelry and Kindred Trades as having been located at 144 Orange St. in Newark, NJ.

Kerr's hallmark was a fasces - a single-bit axe with rods bound with straps. They used this trademark of a medieval axe from 1855 until 1892. Other hallmarks include a hammer, and three "X" marks.

Kerr was known for elaborate and unique Art Nouveau pieces, most especially the American Beauty series, as well as many different patterns of flatware and holloware for children featuring nursery rhymes and images.


information provided by Marbeth Schon



Mark for Arthur King, New York modernist, mid 20th-century jeweler
Earl Krentzin

Earl Krentzin is a native of Michigan.  He studied at Wayne State University in Detroit and then attended Cranbrook Academuy of Art in Bloomfield Hills,  Michigan where he received his M.F.A. degree in metalsmithing.  Krentzin's most recognized works in jewelry and sculpture are abstracted sterling silver figures, humorous and sometimes satirical.  He lists Paul Klee, Picasso and Salvador Dali as his inspiration for his work.  Krentzin was awarded a Louis Comfort Tiffany Grant in Creative Metalwork in 1966 and a Fullbright Grant to study at the Royal Academy of Art. (taken from my book, "Modernist Jewelry, 1930 - 1960, The Wearable Art Movement.")

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Mary Kretsinger

Kansas native, Mary Kretsinger (1915-2001) was on one of the most respected, experimental enamellists of her generation.  She received a master's degree in art history and design at the State University of Iowa and then continued her art studies at Columbia University in New York and at the Craft Student's League with Adda Husted-Andersen. 

By the 1950s, she was already an established member of the American modernist crafts movement.  She exhibited in 1955 in the Walker Art Center's Contemporary Jewelry Exhibit on Paper.  Throughout her career she continued to exhibit, winning many awards and receiving invitations to exhibit in over eighty museum and gallery shows.

After teaching art in elementary schools, intermediate schools and colleges in Arizona, Iowa, and Kansas, she became an Associate Professor of crafts and design at Kansas State Teachers College (now Emporia State University).  In the 1960s she became a full time artist and became successful through gallery representation, patrons, and commissioned work. 

"Her earliest jewelry was primarily done in brass, formatted in ribbons of metal in maze-like configurations with jagged edges, or flat metal pieces that were hammered, gouged and fused, creating rugged moonscape-like surfaces. Later she tamed some of the wildness with more subtle nuances, preferring to work in fine silver and 18k or 24k gold."

She was a master enamellist, especially in the technique of cloisonné.  "Her colors are rich and powerful....She used jewel-toned enamels in small irregular shapes, floating independently in luminous backgrounds of silver-gray, gold or pearl white....."

Kretsinger's jewelry "reflects a playful wit, containing surprise elements in the design; pendants, bracelet and rings may have double and triple hinges, often hiding some clever treatment on the back surface or may have convertible parts and removable pieces that serve dual purposes. " 

(From Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 by Marbeth Schon, biography of Mary Kretsinger by Sheila Pamfiloff) 

"Kulikraft" I have a Sterling Pendant and as a Art & Crafts Style Signed
Kulikraft any ideas or info Thank you

submitted by  Roger

"Bent K"


(Example was a a rigid cuff with a large amethyst quartz on top, probably 60's maybe as late as 70's with a Danish sterling mark of 'Benk K'.

submitted by Adrienne Garden Party Collection

"Bent K" is for Bent Knudsen. He is mentioned in Warman's Jewelry 2nd Ed. by Christie Romero and European Designer Jewelry by Ginger Moro.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

"800" or "900" and "M E K" in a rectangle, "--- P E R"
These 2 bracelets are my own personal pieces and I would like some info on them if anyone has any! 

The first one has 5 curved solid plaques with cast motifs then soldered on- the design has the look of some more primitive Peruzzi I have seen- but this is signed on the back of the middle plaque either 800 or 900 and M E K in a rectangle. Also has on the back of another plaque- P E R- looks like a stamp that could have letters before the P, as it is right at the edge. It is 1 1/2" wide- any idea what the motifs stand for?

submitted by Lorie Mattson

Sam Kramer

Sam Kramer (1913-1964) is best-known for his unconventional modernist jewelry, much of it biomorphic or anthropomorphic in design. He studied jewelry making at the University of Southern California in the 1930s.  He studied gemology at New York University in 1939 and, that same year opened his own shop in Greenwich Village, later moving to West Eighth Street.  His jewelry is unique and truly sculptural.  It continues to be sought after by collectors of mid 20th Century handmade modernist jewelry.

His work is featured in both of my books, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"TK" (conjoined) with wings I purchased a pair of sterling cufflinks in an Art Deco style with inlaid onyx and lapis. I thought I recognized the mark on the back, but when I looked through my reference books, it wasn't there.  The mark is a large "K" with wings
coming from it. It is also marked: "STERLING."  Any help would be greatly appreciated.

submitted by Marbeth Schon

Just a guess, but could they be Navajo? 

information provided by Paul

You will surely get more knowledgeable responses than mine, but in looking at your cuff links, the inlay looked SW Native American to me and then when I looked at your wings in the mark, they look like feathers.  I would look
in lists of Native American marks for your maker.

information provided by Mary Hu

A big thank you to Mary, Paul, and Julie for putting me on the right track regarding my cufflinks. They are Navajo and I found the mark in "Hallmarks of the Southwest" by Barton Wright.  The mark is for Tracey Knifewing (I guess this
was a collaborative silversmith business between two men)--more research later. The mark is a conjoined "TK" with two wings (an early mark). They also used
one with one wing later on.

information provided by Marbeth Schon







 I recently found this bracelet, which from a distance I was certain was Margot. It is marked HL or NL STERLING MEXICO TAXCO 725 and has an eagle
assay with the number 3.

HL is Hilario Lopez who was one of Margot's top silversmiths. He also acquired many of her molds, when she went out of business. So, the well known Margot designs that are signed "HL" are also from her original design molds, made by the same silversmith that made her original signed pieces."

information provided by Sheila Pamfiloff  (and Sigi Pineda)

Your bracelet is made by Hilario Lopez, a silversmith who worked for Margot and, I am told, was her main smith for quite a time.  He reportedly bought or was given many of Margot's molds, etc. when she closed her shop, and continued making the exact pieces, only with his HL stamp instead of the Margot stamp.

information provided by Cris Telgard

"W.L." An enameled bracelet, which I believe is German, with light and  dark blue enamel plaques. There is a brown counterenamel. The front   enamel reminds me of the enamel of the Perli Werkstatte. It is  marked "W.L."


(Example is a pair of cufflinks marked:"John L Denmark,"in printed letters

submitted by Rosalie Isaacs

I have seen some very nice Danish pieces marked "John L.", but don't know much about the designer. I believe that he was John Lauritzen from Copenhagen and that he worked in the 1950s-60s

information provided by Marbeth Schon

cursive "Silver Mexico" with
"L" between the words
(Example is an Arts & Craft-y style of Mexican silver bracelet with a mark I have not seen before: A cursive "Silver Mexico" with the single letter "L" between the two.)

submitted by Lisa Youell

"L" (with "C" in a circle)


J57, "lain" (in lower case script), 6 petalled  flower, anchor, a DOT in a circle, and a SWAN.  Mark for Jezlain

I would like information regarding a spider brooch I have. The manufacturer is apparently "lain"  and it is marked J57.  Other marks include a 6 petaled  flower, and anchor, a DOT in a circle, and a SWAN.
There is also a  faint impression that may be a date, but is not too discernable.

The lain marking is in script, lower case, preceeded by J57 and followed by the anchor mark.

Really curious about this piece it was BLACK when we  were given it. an accidental vinegar spill stripped off the  patina of tarnish and revealed a sterling artwork, needless to say we took it back from the kids and put it away.

submitted by Jeff

Was looking through your mystery marks and on page 1, down near the bottom, is a photo of a spider. The OP states it is marked J57 lain. Their 'enhanced' photo is not enhanced correctly. I can not make out the anchor under their outline of the item.

The company is Jezlaine. Probably with a copyright symbol. Perhaps even marked .925 If you do a search for Jezlaine spider, you can find those to match.

information provided by Carmen

Graziella Laffi

Graziella Laffi was an Italian born artist/collector who made a name for herself in Peru with her well-designed jewelry and hollowware based on pre-Columbian motifs.


information provided by Marbeth Schon


"L.A O.Y" ( The dot between the L and A is high up, like an apostrophe). 
Finnish Silver Mark of a Crown in a heart; Silver content 813H; 
City of Assay is Rii (Rovaniemi ?) and the Date Y6 (1952).

Hello - I have a sterling tie clip date marked 1952, but I don't recognize the makers' name.  Any help would be appreciated.  I have a clear  jpeg picture if anyone wants to see it.

Hallmarked: Maker's name is L.A O.Y;  The dot between the L and A is high up, like an apostrohe.  I believe the OY means company?

Finnish Silver Mark of a Crown in a heart; 
Silver content 813H; 
City of Assay is Rii (Rovaniemi ??); and the 
Date Y6 (1952).

submitted by Lis Bianco (shoppington200

"Lega, No. 514" (Example is a pin, two peacocks on a tree branch, sterling silver and marcasites. On the back is the word Lega No 514. The "L" is in cursive, the rest is in print.)

This was a manufacturing silversmithing company of Melbourne that was in business from post WW11 until post 1980. Their marcasite jewellery made dates from round 1950. The birds described appears to be similar to those illustrated in "Australian Jewellers, Gold & Silversmiths Makers and Marks." by K. Cavill, G Cocks & J Grace, ISBN 0 646 11042 X. 

submitted by Fred Sinfield.

"Lalounis, 900" I was sorting through a box from storage today and came across this piece. It's about 2 1/4 inches high, seems more like gilt than vermeil but I'm not sure I really understand the difference. I assume it is a master salt. It is marked Lalaounis and 900. Any idea who the maker is?

submitted by Carie

I believe that this is the mark of the fine Greek jewler, Lalounis. They specialize in hand wrought gold jewlery and other small items. Their work is of the highest quality and can be purchased at their shops in various world capitals. They currently have a shop on Madison Avenue in New York City.

information provided by Leslie Lassiter, New York City

Alphonse La Paglia

Alphonse LaPaglia was an exceptionally talented silversmith who was very much influenced by Danish designs.  In the 1950s he worked for Georg Jensen USA and also the International Silver Company.  He died from a fall in 1953.
(information from "Silver Jewelry Designs" by Nancy Schiffer, pg. 239)

information provided by Marbeth Schon


"R. LARIN" (Example is an abstract pendant (silver/chrome looking), 1 1/2 x 1 7/8", Stamp on reverse looks to read "R.. LARIN")

submitted by Lisa Youell

It is made by a Robert Larin of montreal canada. his work is not generally in silver, but in another base metal. I am currently compiling information on him with the help of a montreal dealer from whom I have purchased a few good examples. normally, the R. is fully written as Robert, and along with Larin is in a cursive script. when Ihave compiled more substantial info, I will repost with the updated scholarship. he seems to have worked late 50s into the 70s

information provided by Anthony Matthews, director, Period (.) Gallery, Toronto


Ibram Lassaw

Ibram Lassaw (1913-2003) was one of America's leading Abstract Expressionist sculptors and was one of the first to intentionally create "sculpture to wear."  His work in welded bronze is in permanent collections of most of the major museums in the United States and abroad.  Lassaw called his miniature abstract sculptures for the body, "Bosom Sculptures;"  The Kootz Gallery in New York City sold them from 1951-1965. Among the early collectors of these small bronzes was Nelson A. Rockefeller. (More information about Ibram Lassaw can be found in my book, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement, pages 22-25).

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"La Cucaracha" I have seen several pieces of "la Cucaracha" jewelry including a pair of overlay earrings in sterling with amnythyst cabs set in bezels, a necklace in an Aztec design, silver, and a belt buckle with chasing work. All were signed "LA CUCARACHA, 925 Silver, Taxco". I would estimate the age to be ca. 1945-55. The quality was good to excellent in the earrings and necklace and only fair in the buckle.

information provided by Paul Pat Morse
"LUCKWALDT, STERLING"  LUCKWALDT  The first letter or 2 is hard to make out.
R. Landerholm

 "La Vista, Handwrought"

Anyone have any info on the maker's mark, "La Vista"? It's accompanied on both pieces that I ran across by the additional mark, "Handwrought".
I don't have pics available yet, but both pieces are in sterling, and most likely 50s American work. The pendant is an abstract fish with a looping wire that makes it very 3D. The bracelet is also 3D, but in more of a machine age and ethnic mix.

submitted by Patrick Kapty

I had a similar pendant by LaVista which I sold some time ago. I purchased it in New York and the seller said it was by  Adele (sp.?) La Vista  ( a 1950s New York silversmith), but I never found any other information except that there is a fabuous set in Schiffer's Silver Jewelry Designs" (pg. 275).

Later information is that Idella LaVista was a mid 20th-century silversmith who had a shop in New York.  I am in contact with the family and should have more information very soon.

information provided by Marbeth Schon



Anyone got any ideas about this brooch?  I have tried to show the marking on the back but they are very hard read. One of them is 14K and the other could be LLEBCLT or LLEGCLT. The pendant is about 1 3/4" wide and is very heavy. The stones are solid clear opals with bright colors and the pearls are real. There is a little lever device on the part that holds the pin and the loop at the top is hinged. I have tried for a long time to find out what the marking means - who made it, where it came from and how old it is and the value.

submitted by Richard Whitehouse

Richard, this is a shot in the dark, but could the mark possibly be "Lebolt", perhaps double struck? I have no idea if they made pieces similar to this since I have only seen their arts & crafts tableware.

information provided by Willie Elliot

hi richard, the brooch looks like a transitiional art nouveau/arts&crafts piece from circa 1920. the signature may be LEBOLT for J. Meyer Lebolt of Chicago, Illinois. this firm is known mostly for their silver work in the early part of the 20th century but they did quite a lot of gold, platinum and pearl work until world war 2. The opals are questionable even though they show great color. simulants were available even then and since the stones are imbedded rather than open to the light, i would be skeptical of them.

information provided by Susan Crosby

Enrique Ledesma

I just got this in the mail a half hour ago and think it is just fantastic. It's not in Bille's book and I hope someone can recognize it. It is marked TEDESMA. Keeping my fingers crossed but not holding my breath. There are so many great unknown silversmiths from there but I'd love to know who this was.

submitted by Lindsay

You don't have to hold your breath any longer. It is in Billie's Book. You
read the mark as Ledesma.

information provided by Buddy

Lindsay, it is Ledesma. The L in Ledesma continues across the bottom of the
name. The S comes down to meet the another version, the S continues
below. It can be a bit confusing because the top of the L does look suspiciously
like a T. See L-27 on page 87 in the new edition of "The Little Book..."

Congratulations, it's a beautiful piece.

information provided by Bille Hourgart
Ed Levin



I have several pieces of Ed Levin jewelry and have always thought that the pieces signed in block letters were older studio pieces and the ones signed in script were production pieces.

submitted by Marbeth Schon

According to Shari Miller, who contacted the man himself a couple of years ago, the script signature is/was used on production pieces since the 1980s. However, the earlier pieces with the block letter signature were often multiple production designs as well. So the signature only helps with the circa date.

information provided by Christie Romero

Relative to the question a little while ago about Ed Levin bronze, this Vermont and New York artist did work in bronze, in addition to bronze/silver combination pieces.

information provided by Paul Lemieux

Timm Lewis

I've looked high & low, but can't find a thing on Jimm Lewis. A few ebay
listings state old pawn silver Navajo.

Google Timm Lewis He is a Navaho.

Esther Lewittes

I recently purchased a pair of beautiful wood and silver cufflinks in a modernist style which are signed "Lewitte" in script on the bar. Nancy Schiffer's book "Silver Jewelry Designs" has two pairs of similar cufflinks (wood and silver) on page 276. The pair on the top of the page is attributed to an "F. Lewittes" and then, further down the page, is a pair attributed to "Esther Lewittwe".

I have a pair of modernist earrings by Esther Lewittes clearly marked in block letters: "LEWITTES, HANDMADE, STERLING".
In the FIFTY/50 catalog, "Structure and Ornament", Esther's last name is definitely "Lewittes".
Has anyone else had a piece of jewelry they believe to be by Esther Lewittes which is signed in script without the "s" at the end of her last name? I admit that the "s" could have been rubbed out or stamped very faintly on my cufflinks, but all the other letters are very clear and I can't make out a trace of an "s". Did she spell her name in different ways?? Was there an American modernist jeweler named "Lewitte"???

submitted by Marbeth Schon

I collect jewelry by Esther Lewittes and have a pair of Lewittes earrings with a different spelling than in her book. I can't remember off hand the spelling but the funny thing is, the earrings are featured in the book, which I also have.
Go figure.

submitted by Ellen S.

I also have a pair of cufflinks in sterling with wood that are
marked on the bar. They are both signed in cursive on the bar. one, the s is worn but still visible so the name is LEWITTES. but the other one shows no sign of the s so the name is LEWITTE. the bars on mine have raised centers which is where the signature is located and because the s is at the tapering end of this rise, it was probably not as imprinted into the silver and could wear off over time and handling.
hope this helps a bit!

information provided by Susan Crosby

"Libery & Co."


was very happy when i went to a flea market in Chelsea, VT--I got  my first piece of Liberty & Co. silver. The piece is a beaker which  has an allover hammered finish. Then at the bottom are the raised  letters "AC / ER VII" for "Anno Coron ER VII", as well as a raised  crown enameled with reddish basse-taille enamel and opaque turquoise  enamel dots. It was made in 1901. The lady from whom I bought it  was still unpacking when I got to her booth, and I asked if she had  any more silver. She reluctantly pulled it out because she said she  was going to make the price higher after doing some research (she  said, "I think this may be a sleeper"). She did not know who the  maker was, apparently. Also, the price tag just said "Sterling  Cup." It was only $95.00:)

I do have a question about the piece: does anybody know who designed  it? I was told by one person that maybe it is a Knox piece without  his typical Celtic knot motifs, and I have seen a picture of a spoon  definitely by Knox with identical writing in addition to Celtic  knots, but I don't want to jump to conclusions about the designer.
submitted by Paul.

One minor point: although Edward VII became king upon the death of Victoria in 1901, he wasn't actually crowned until the following year, when commemorative items such as your mug would have been distributed. It's quite possible that in anticipation of the event, these items were made prior to
the actual coronation.

information provided by Evelyn Yallen
"Hecho en Mexico, LICO, 925"


(example is a  well made Mexican sterling cuff. This piece I can't even weigh on my gold scale it weighs so much, I know it weighs at least 50 pennyweights. It has a wonderful dark oxidization behind the raised design. I know it's an older piece because of the marks but don't know who it would be. Here's what it's marked. Hecho en Mexico, LICO, 925 and the eagle stamp which has a number 1 in it.)

submitted by Jackie Weeks

Your bracelet is very handsome! No wonder you are so excited! I don't know who LICO is/was, but the Eagle 1 on it indicates it was sold (and probably made) in Mexico City sometime between early 1949 and 1979. I hope that will narrow your search a little. It is too bad so little is known about the many wonderful Mexican designers and silversmiths.

information provided by Phyllis Goddard

"Hindoostan" and "Leicestershire" I have a circular tortoiseshell pique pin (it's actually 9K gold not silver, but hopefully somebody can still help) bearing marks for London 1917.  The brooch is a circular piece of toirtoiseshell with a simple gold bezel.  The inlay depicts a tiger passant; a banner above the tiger reads "Hindoostan"
and a banner below the tiger reads "Leicestershire."  Does anybody have ideas as to the significance of the design--an organization?  An event?

submitted by  Paul

This is a pin made for the 76th Royal Leicester Regiment (Leicester is the Midlands, UK). Their insignia is the Tiger Passant, awarded to them in 1825, after their long campaign from 1804 to 1823 in Hindoostan in India.  Thus , the regiment have since been known as "The Tigers", and
regimental badges, commerative pieces and insignia carry the Tiger Passant and the words "Hindoostan" and Leicester. This piece was probably made for the wife of an officer, or as a gift from the Regiment  - The regiment is still in existence today

information provided by Vanessa Frisbee


We are hoping to find out more about the maker Libertad.  All the pieces we have seen are large, quite abstract, and silver with ivory and a stone or two.  Some pieces are signed, but we suspect that there are others that are not.  I'll post pictures on our facebook page.

submitted by Myrna Seal and Marbeth Schon


Charles Loloma

Charles Loloma (1921 - 1991) was one of the most influential Native American jewelers of all time. In 1945, he moved away from the Hopi reservation to study ceramics at the School for American Craftsmen in New York City.  He then went to Arizona where he opened a ceramics studio at the Kiva Crafts center and from 1954 - 1958, taught a ceramics course at Arizona State University.  During that time, Loloma changed from ceramics to a career in jewelry-making.  His lavish and groundbreaking way of setting and using stones, wood, ivory, and other materials made him an undisputed master who personally broke down the barriers of regionalism and helped give contemporary Native American Art worldwide recognition. (from my book, Form & Function, American Modernist Jewerly, 1940 - 1970)

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"J. Himenez Louve, Sterling, 925" A friend who does estate sales called asking for information on a Mexican Holloware marker who signs:" J Himenez Louve sterling 925"

submitted by Nancy Hunt.

Luve & Harvey Has anyone ever heard of this silver group? The are from Paris, and did work around the late 1800's.

submitted by Lonny  Rosen

"Lstlg"(L is in script and looks like the British pound symbol) (Example was a modern design sterling silver bracelet with good quality Labradorite stones)  submitted by Marilyn Ostrow   pic
Lysgard's Designs I found a tin pendant that is rather nice looking. It has the mark Lysgard's Designs.

Would any of you ever have heard of this maker?

submitted by Jane, Viney Ridge

I have not heard of this maker, but Lysgaard is a very Danish name, and the item could be from either Denmark or Norway (until this century under Danish> rule and therefore many Danish surnames up there too) as both countries have a tradition of working in "tin" - their word for pewter.

information provided by Annette R. Floystrup

"WWL Sterling" Can anyone ID Sterling WWL?
Large tiger eye stone. I'm guessing Scandanavian?

submitted by Adrienne


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