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 M y s t e r y   M a r k s   2

This page includes marks from M - Z.  Please Click here to go back to Mystery Marks I  (marks from A - L).

Click here for a  numerical list of Mexican "Eagle" Marks

"M"( in a shield flanked by two birds), "STERLING" I would like to know about a flatware hallmark. It is on an old meat fork and says STERLING with an M in a simple shield flanked by 2 birds, presumably eagles. The metal design work is not of high quality which makes me think it is older than 80 years old. If I am in the wrong forum, please excuse me and direct me where I should look. 

submitted by Mary

This mark is most likely for Manchester Mfg. Co., Providence Rhode Island. In Rainwater's, "Encyclopedia of American Silver Manufacturers, it states that the company manufactured sterling silver fancy flatware, hollowware, and novelties beginning in 1887.  After 1915 (or so) the company became the Manchester Silver Company.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"M" with the words ade/in/exico sort of arranged among lines of the letter M in this fashion---- Reading from the top, The letter M is on its side.  the ade is next, the word "in" is cradled in the "V" of the letter, next is the word "exico" and next the other leg of the letter M.  It is also marked SILVER. I need help identifying a set (Large Clip/Pin, Bracelet, Earrings). The pin is 45cm by 82 cm and is set with a large root beer colored glass stone.  It is in an intricate silver (tests as at least sterling) in an extremely Art-Deco Style.  It is marked on the rear with a large (almost 7X7cm letter M with the words ade/in/exico sort of arranged among lines of the letter M in this fashion---- Reading from the top, The letter M is on its side.  the ade is next, the word "in" is cradled in the "V" of the letter, next is the word "exico" and next the other leg of the letter M.  It is also marked SILVER.
There are two matching earrings with the same "M" signature and stones, and a LARGE bracelet made of a 95mm long 33mm wide central motif set with the same type of stone and a band made of 6X 15MM cylinders which are hinged to each other.  I have checked all my books and I can not find any referemce to this maker.  WHO could it possibly be, and WHEN was it made?  the workmanship is incredible, but I would love to know more.

submitted by Carol Kelley
"G M" in a double circle  I have acquired a beautiful bracelet and necklace of silver filigree, large  blue topaz and a center of a cameo. There is a hallmark that appears to be a  G and an M in a double circle.  I think it looks Russian, the cameo has a reddish brown back and the face  and neck are in profile in a lighter beige. Any help on identifying would
 be greatly appreciated.  Thanks!

submitted by  Jo-An
"SPM" Recently inherited ring with the hallmark SPM, on left side of S 1/2 diamond shape, right side of M other 1/2 diamond shape and then joined at top and bottom with a line. Can any please tell me who made this ring and approximate age?

submitted by  Cheryl 

Hi! I found SPM listed in a trademark book from 1950 and in Rainwater's book. It stands for J. Schnelwar & Sons, Inc. in business since 1905. In the trademark book, the entry was under "Rings and Mountings" -so that is most likely the company that made your ring. The Rainwater book says that today they only deal in loose diaminds. You may need to date it by the style.

information provided by Karen B. 

M801n I have 3 enamel gilded cup holders and they are marked on the bottom M80ln .Are these from Italy and are they 800

submitted by  Lee
"MAKI, SILVER"  Have any of you seen a pin like this before? It's an interesting piece, marked MAKI SILVER. The top looks like tortoise or bakelite with beautiful detailed painted leaves on each side.

submitted by Ellen from Santa Cruz

Peter Macchiarini (early signature)


Peter Macchiarini (1909 - 2001) is considered one of the pioneers of American modernist studio jewelry.  His studio/gallery was in the North Beach section of San Francisco where, beginning in the 1930s, he handcrafted unique works of art including sculpture and jewelry. Margaret De Patta was a close friend and, together with other "pioneers" of this period, they started the San Francisco Metal Arts Guild. 

Please read more about Peter Macchiarini in both of my books,
"Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement" and "Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970." His  work was a major part of the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008. See American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970, MODERN SILVER magazine, Winter, 2008-2009. 

Also see Macchiarini on Macchiarini, June - July, 2000--one of the first and still one of the best articles from MODERN SILVER magazine.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"Sterling, Macefield"

(Example is a ring with a Nice Sized Pearl on oneside and a Gold Ball on the Other Each is Hooded with a Silver Bowl that has a hole so you can see through to the Otherside! Stands Quite High off the Shank...I hope the descriptions don't sound to disappointing. It is signed Sterling and what looks like macefield.)

submitted by Roger Erickson

For information on Macefield, see

"A Manca" A. Manca: A late Arts & Crafts style designer, usually marked "handwrought", maybe NY

Albino A. Manca (1898 - 1976) was a well known, late Arts & Crafts style designer.

He was born in Tertenia, Italy in 1898 and became a sculptor of commemorative works, a medalist, crafts person, and professor of art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Rome. Most of his career was spent in New York City; although he spent much time in Italy where he was also a student at the Academy of Fine Arts and exhibited  at the Roman Exchange and the Italian Salon. Other exhibition venues were the National Sculpture Society, National Academy, Pennsylvania Academy, and Rockefeller Center.

He created numerous medallions including ones for the Vatican in Rome. The "East Coast Memorial" in Battery Park in New York City is his most famous large-scale work and depicts a bronze eagle, 18 and 1/2 feet high, atop eight granite slabs. It is a memorial to President John F. Kennedy. Manca also did WPA (Works Progress Administration) sculpture, and one of these pieces is "Wild Duck and Deer", 1942, in Lyons, Ohio.

He also designed gates for the New York World’s Fair. He created a three-tiered composition for these impressive gates. Aquatic plants occupy the lowest level, marine life, such as fish and mollusks reside on the second level, and terrestrial plants, animals and birds are situated on the top level. Measuring 22 feet across, and ranging from outer to inner height from 10 to 8 1/2 feet, the monumental gates are an appropriate introduction to the actual species within.

He was an extremely gifted jewelry designer who specialized in hand wrought sterling silver flowers. This jewelry is highly prized by serious collectors and is quite rare.


Thomas Mann

Thomas Mann, a very well known contemporary jeweler based in New Orleans, has been creating jewelry for about thirty years. He describes himself as "an artist working in the medium of jewelry and sculpture." He has won numerous awards for his jewelry and is featured in many books on modern jewelry including  Art Jewelry Today by Dona Z. Meilach.

information provided by Marbeth Schon



Margot de Taxco


Margot van Voorhies Carr arrived in Mexico City in 1937.  While there, she met and became friends with Maria Castillo and the two traveled together to Taxco where she was introduced to and eventually married Antonio Castillo, who put her to work designing jewelry that he would create.  She was a talented designer who worked for many years creating some of Los Castillo's most successful designs.  In 1948, she opened her own shop, Margot de Taxco, and eventually, had over 20 silversmiths and ten enamelists on her staff.  Her work is unique and very desirable for its quality and beauty.  Her enamels were sometimes based on Japanese designs and the colors are spectacular.  Margot's work, more than any other, was designed for woman--it is mostly very wearable and highly feminine.

Information can be found in Mexican Silver by Carole Berk and Penny Morrill and William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance.  Her work was included in the traveling exhibit, William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance.

You can order Mexican Silver, $59.95 (item #SMB001) or Silver Masters of Mexico, $49.95 (item #SMB002) from MODERN SILVER magazine books  Please add $3.95 for shipping for each book.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"MARITSCHNIG SWEDEN, ICO, 1 "(in a circle), three crowns in a trefoil, "S" (in a hexagon) 
Hello there! I recently bought a bracelet marked
followed by several marks - ICO , what looks to be a 1 in a circle, three crowns in a trefoil, an S in a hexagon, and Y8.
From reading the list of Mystery Marks I found the meanings of the three-crowns mark and the S, but would anyone be able to tell me anything more about this bracelet? Thanks so much for any help provided.

The Y8 is for 1949 and the ICO is probably for Galerie 22, Stockholm, but I don't know what MARITSCHNIG means.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

 William Mason 
What can you tell me about William Mason and Leonard Field, jeweler/artisans who worked out of Winchester, Mass. after World War II?

submitted by Paul

For information on William Mason and Leonard Field  see


Matilde Poulat


A collector from Australia sent me photos of a beautiful Matl necklace > about > which she would like more information. 
 The piece appears to be an early necklace by Matilde Poulat, but I've always wondered whether the "Matl" marks that are incised (or scratched on the surface of the metal such as the marks on this necklace) are actually  early
 Matilde Poulat marks. The ones I've seen on her beautiful early  repousse pieces are impressed or stamped. This piece also has patent and registration  marks. Are the pieces with the scratched marks designs by Matilde  Poulat that
 were produced later?  I don't see a "Salas" mark on this piece and I  thought the pieces made after 1960 would be marked "Salas" together with the other marks.

She also told me that "the necklace is actually the Mayan Calendar: days, months and years. A professor at the NSW University picked this up after he counted all the stones, and the way they were segmented, and he noted that this had taken a considerable effort by the maker to work out."
Is this true or simply coincidence?

submitted by Marbeth Schon

I have been buying from Mr. Salas for many years.  On my older pieces he put the patent number.  On his more recent pieces he either uses a rectangular piece of silver soldered on the back with Matl in script and M REGIS (marca registrada - registered mark) followed by a number,
MEXICO 925, MS-12  or he simply "scratches" on the back "Matl, Mex 925"   He doesn't always scratch on the "MS-12" or "Salas".   My "scratched" pieces match the photos here.  I know he wrote them because we were
visiting with him at his home when he was marking pieces.   So just because it doesn't have MS-12 or Salas does not mean it is a Matilde Poulat piece.  It could mean he just didn't put it on! I last saw him over a year ago, he is a most wonderful man (in his 80's) with a great family.  He has a small booth at the Bazar Sabado in San Angel in Mexico City that is open for a few hours on Saturday only.

I enjoy reading and learning from the SilverForum; keep sending those

The following is a detailed summary from Sheila Pamfiloff of regarding Matl hallmarks:

1940s...Stamped Matl in fat script (curled beginning on M) or block, sometimes with a 950 or 925, no government assay mark. Stamped on the metal or applied oval

early 1950s...Stamped thin script Matl with stamped sterling and 950 or 925 and Mexico.sometimes with the eagle 1, by mid 1950s, should have an eagle 129.

late 1950s-early 60s...Transition marks, thin dremel script mark with reg. numbers, Mexico, (usually a space between Mex & ico), 925, all etched in. (sometimes with/eagle 129).

1960s...Salas, thicker stippled dremel, sometimes with Salas and sometimes without; and reg and other marks stamped in.

1970s and on...Salas with MS-12, Reg# Stamps used, and later, no more eagle stamps.

Remember that marks can overlap time frames for various reasons. And, it is quite possible that all marks don't get placed on a piece for reasons of space availability or that they forgot to place one of the marks on a piece (rarely, but quite possible).  

Most of my known Sals works have been marked Salas, (either stamped or dremel etched) but occasionally I find the Salas ommitted.

I generally look at the whole piece along with the marks to determine questionable dating on pieces.


I'm wondering if any of you have any information on Maya copper. I guess there's a Taxco silver artisan who signs his/her work "Maya" but I'm not familiar with this work, so I'm not certain that my "funky green painted copper Maya" is the same as the "silver Maya." I can send jpegs if it's
helpful at all. Most of the pieces I've seen are bold and very fanciful: dragon motif, Aztec figures, etc., but I've also seen a couple of more traditional pieces. Thanks!

submitted by Kim Matthews

Patricia Madeja


information provided by Marbeth Schon

Miguel Melendez

Miguel Melendez began his career as an apprentice at Taller de las Delicias.  He joined Los Castillo at its formation in 1940.  He had worked at Los Castillo for many years before he joined Margot at Margot de Taxco.  Melendez eventually became workshop manager at Margot.  (from "Mexican Silver Trade and Hallmarks" by Bille Hougart.)

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Menuki jewelry

I recently came into a collection of very interesting silver jewelry from Japan. I beleive it is called Menuki from my poking around the web. Has anyone seen anything like it or know where I can get more information regarding age and
value? Any input appreciated!

submitted by Ellen

Menuki are part of the "furniture" used on Japanese swords.

Two menuki are used per sword and are used underneath the wrappings of the handle.  After the
manufacture of swords was banned the craftsmen who originally made the sword furniture had to redirect their skills to the making of other items. (Often for the Western trade).

I have seen several menuki converted to brooches and tie bars. Other parts of the sword furniture have been mounted onto rings or onto containers as  decoration.

Information provided by Fred Zweig



"M" on top of "J"

I have another mystery for you.....this one has a nice arts and crafts look and is marked with what looks like an M on top of a J. Any one have an idea who the maker might be? 
  submitted by Ellen from Santa Cruz
"M" or a heart with the letters "A" & "E" inside

(Mexican mark)


The mark resembles a letter "M" or a heart with the letters A and E inside.   As far as I can remember, none of the other pieces had an eagle assay, so I would assume they are mostly from the early 40's.
submitted lby ....Doug & Jessica
"MM" and eagle mark "17 (Mexican) I have a Mexican 980 silver bracelet marked "MM"....does anyone know who this mark belongs to? The spread eagle is #17 and the numerical listing assigns this to Antonio. Could it be a Miguel Melendez mark? Thanks in advance for your help!

submitted by Kathy
"MM34" I am trying to establish the time frame for this wonderful "Silver Fox" sterling piece. It has no "eagle" assay mark & I recall something about that fact helping to date a piece. What is the MM34 in the upper left corner? An 
apprentice or assistant mark? I was surprised to find this sterling pin that looks like a Lea Stein plastic fox.
Wonder who was first.

"M" with "R" superimposed over it "Sterling, Mexico" I recently purchased this piece and am wondering how I can tell if this is dyed agate or other green stone and if any has a clue who the maker is ? I belive the signature is M with a R superimposed over it. It is also marked Sterling Mexico.

submitted by Frances Rosenau

Today, I bought earrings marked RM, Hecho en Mexico 900.  They are screw backs and appear to be from the 40's, 50's time period.  Mine is just a black RM, but they place where they are marked, that is all there is room for.  Possibly the same maker?  Wonder why they are 900?  I don't often see 900.  Either 980, 925,
submitted by Beegee

I can't make out the mark on your Mexican piece by your photos, but there is a mark for Rafael Melendez which is a large cursive "M" with an "R" coming from the inside left of the "M".  Melendez worked for Hector Aguilar in the late 1930s and had his own workshop in the 1940s and 50s. There is information on Melendez and a photograph of this mark in "Silver Masters of Mexico" by Penny Morrill, pg. 85.
It's difficult to tell by the photo whether or not the piece is carved stone, but most of the carvings like yours that I have seen are of green stone.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

stylized block "M" and "TJ-26"


We picked up a nice solid necklace with a not-very-legible mark--looks like
a stylized block M and TJ-26. Does anyone have any idea who this is?

submitted by Dale Reed
"BM CO Sterling"


(Example was a beautifully enameled sterling leaf pin, mark is BM CO and Sterling.

submitted by Adrienne Garden Party Collection

The BM Co pin was made by Breadner Company, Ltd. of Hull, Quebec, Canada. The company was Breadner Mfg.Co, from 1903 until 1930, when it became the Breadner Co. Ltd. BM Co made sterling souvenir flatware and sterling souvenir jewelry. I sometimes see a maple leaf brooch in green, yellow, red and orange basse-taille enamel. For more information, see Rainwater's "American Silver Manufacturers," 4th edition.I hope this helps you,

information provided by Paul

Eric Magnussen mark with running man and also marked "California"


(Example was a brooch  with the mark for Eric Magnussen, and a  little running man .The brooch ia also stamped California.)

submitted by Vanessa, Retrogallery

I found a reference for Magnussen working for a German firm-- Thomas Dingeldein and Son. It says "they had a showroom in New York, and then worked in Chicago and, from 1932 to 1938, in Los Angeles". I'm not sure if that reference means that he worked for Dingeldein in Los Angeles, but, at least, that would explain the California mark on your piece and, perhaps, date it. My book does not show the mark for Thomas Dingeldein.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"A Manca" A. Manca: A late Arts & Crafts style designer, usually marked "handwrought", maybe NY
Flli Maregotti I haven't any luck sending pics so I'll ask the question and send a pic later ... I found a sterling ring which is enamelled in a chetah / tortoise pattern . It has an emerald cut topaz or citrine and an oval signature plate which says something like 925in an oval under that the sig Flli Maregotti and under that Italy . I'm not sure on the name . It's in script and you know how hard that can be to read . This is VERY Art Deco in design and also Gucci in style . Please help if you can. 

Thank you and peace be with you, Heather
"MASHA, Sterling"


I just acquired the most adorable teddy bear pin, made very well, cast of sterling, heavy, detailed.  It is signed on the back in script MASHA, then sterling, then the copyright symbol.  Any one ever hear of Masha? 

submitted by Beverly Barton


I recently acquired a long-time heart's desire of mine, a set of vintage Russian-style teaglass holders in 800 silver. The holders feature lovely repousse roses all around, with chasing on the handles, and are marked on the bottom with the words MAZREF, SILVER, followed by the Hebrew word for silver ("kesef," if one were to transliterate it into the Roman alphabet), a mark which the seller described as a "cartouche" (but which is the Hebrew letter "mem," possibly referring to MAZREF), and the number 800. Each marking has been individually stamped. Does anyone know who or what Mazref is? (The rest of the marks are not a mystery.) Any other information, such as possible timeframe?

submitted by Linda in Philadelphia

"Meka, Denmark" Examples were several pieces of enamel pendants marked Meka and Denmark.

submitted by Jackie Weeks

Rafaelf Melendez

Rafael Melendez (1911- 1980) worked for William Spratling at Taller de las Delicias beginning in 1932. He left Spratling in 1939 to start his own workshop that he called the Plateria Melendez.  Many of his pieces were made with 980 silver.  He used two versions of his conjoined RM mark.  (from "Mexican Silver Trade and Hallmarks" by Bille Hougart.)

information provided by Marbeth Schon


"Mendoza "(with eagle mark) (Example is a silver bowl with the name Mendoza and the Eagle mark)

submitted by  Lonny Rosen

"merri-lynn" (Example was a Mid-century Modern brooch, ca. 1955, signed STERLING then "merri-lynn" in all lower case letters. The brooch is a flowerhead motif, about 1.5" x 1.25", all hammered with irregularly sized and spaced petals, some being almost twice as wide as others. The center appears to be some sort of strange stone that I am not familiar with; the stone has an polished edge, and a recessed, unpolished, slightly crystallized center; in the center of the recessed section the stone bulges out and resembles an orange and white corn kernel, somewhat similar to Indian corn. Any help on the artist (or the stone) would be appreciated.

submitted by Paul.

Mexican Eagle Marks Click here for a complete list of Mexican Eagle Marks
"925 Mexico" I encountered a very 50s-60s looking Mexican sterling looking necklace and bracelet today. Was actually shocked to learn they were Mexican as they looked quite Scandinavian in appearance.

The only marks on each piece are 925 Mexico. I am familiar with Mexico Sterling as a 1930s and 40s mark, as well as the later system of marking up to the present time. But I have not encountered this mark before and am hoping a Mexican silver expert can shed some light on when this might have
been produced. The pieces are heavy and well-made, but the style is not reminiscent of any Mexican designer I have encountered -- again, more 60s Jensen than Mexican!

submitted by Evelyn
Someone sent me a photo of a Mexican mark that I believe we may have discussed before, but I don't remember if there was any deduction that followed as to the maker.

The piece is a sterling link necklace (Spratling-like) that is marked  "TAXCO" and then this interesting maker's mark.

submitted by Marbeth Schon

A. Michelsen

Anton Michelsen (1809-77) opened his shop in 1941 in Denmark. His firm obtained early recognition for the quality of its output and, for several generations, the firm was the leading producer of gold and silver objects in Denmark with significant influence on Danish jewelry design. Many excellent and famous designers worked for the company throughout the years. A Michelsen jewelry is known for superb design and quality.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"MIKIMOTO" I'm hoping one of you can assist me. I went to a shop where I saw a beautiful assortment of high quality pearl and silver pins. On each one the dealer had the pin marked MIKIMOTO on his tag. However, only two of them had the M in the clamshell, the rest had what looked like a K or an R in a clamshell. I believe that Mikimoto only used the M or had their name written out. Is this correct?

submitted by  Ellen
Andreas Mikkelsen

Danish designer, Andreas Mikkelsen (b.1928) worked with the Georg Jensen company in the 1950s. He later became head of sales, head of production and product development and even rose to the post of managing director.

He also worked independently and with other designers and, in the late 1980s, designed jewelry for the Georg Jensen company.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Minas Spiridis

This mark is from a modernist sterling ring by Georg Jensen.  Other marks on the ring were the typical Georg Jensen marks from post WWII.

submitted by Marbeth Schon

The designer is Minas from Greece.
Minas designed for Jensen in the early 1990's.

Information provided by Soren Jensen

biographical information about Minas Spiridis can be found at


Mings, Sterling

Ming's was first listed in the 1940-41 Directory of the City and County of Honolulu. There were Ming's stores on the mainland and goods were also sold through catalogues. Ming's last retail site, the one in Honolulu closed in October of 1999. Many of the pieces were designed by Wook Moon and most examples are signed "Ming's." (see MODERN SILVER magazine article, The Jewelry of Hawaii by Sheryl Gross Shatz.

Frank Miraglia

Frank Miraglia worked in New York during the mid 20th century.  He is regarded as an accomplished modernist jeweler and his work is highly collectible. His work was featured in my book "Modernist Jewelry 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement ."

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"Harald Moltke"

Harald Moltke: Harald Viggo Moltke was born in 1871 in Elsinore (Helsingor), Denmark, and died in 1960 in Frederiksberg, Denmark. Ten years of his childhood was spent in North Carolina, USA.  He returned to Denmark from the US in 1881.  In 1889, he began studying at the Danish Academy of Arts where he graduated in 1893.  In 1894 he began his career as an artist exhibiting his paintings at Charlottenborg's autumn exhibition. In 1902-1904 he went on an expedition to Greenland with Knud Rasmussen which inspired his art from then on.  From 1907-1908 he worked at the Royal Danish Porcelain Factory and from 1908-1914 at Bing & Grondahl.  He is known for his portraits in oils and his paintings from Greenland

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Jessie Monongye


Jesse Monongye was raised in New Mexico in the famous Navajo rug center of Two Gray Hills. His earliest artistic influences came as he watched weavers. Their pursuit of balance and technical perfection. The beautiful songs the women sang as they wove. The soothing sound of the loom. All this stayed  with Jesse as he started at the jeweler's bench years later.

Although busy producing his own work, Jesse shares his expertise. He assisted in the placing of historic and contemporary Native American jewelry in the permanent display at the Heard Museum.  He also was the Artist in Residence at the Heard Museum during 1986-87, both teaching  and demonstrating the centuries old art of Navajo jewelry making.

Jesse’s jewelry has been featured in a number of group and private exhibitions  and is represented in both corporate and private collections. (quoted from )

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Gonzalo Moreno I am trying to find out more about a Mexican silversmith by the name of Gonzalo Moreno or Gonzalo Morenom.  He used the Eagle 11 assay mark, and he worked in Mexico City.  I am looking for any and all information about him.  He may, at one time, have worked for Conquistador, but I have no factual information (yet!) that confirms that.

submitted by Phyllis Goddard
Philip Morton

Philip Morton's books, Contemporary Jewelry, a Studio Handbook and Contemporary Jewelry, a Craftsman's Handbook are invaluable resources for collectors, jewelers and students who wish to learn about the history of the modern studio jewelry movement and its design principles, materials and techniques.

Morton's childhood and college days were spent in Utah.  In the 1930s he took a course in jewelry design from a WPA sponsored art project and from that time forward, he made jewelry.  His studies in contemporary art movements were done on his own.

During World War II he moved to California where his jewelry sold successfully at many of the leading shops in the San Francisco area. By 1946 he was also producing his own line of contemporary silverware and, in 1947, because of his success as a metalsmith and designer, he was invited to teach design at Alfred University at the School for American Craftsmen.  A year later he took a position with the newly formed art department at the University of Minnesota where he taught three dimensional design, jewelry making and sculpture.

In 1951 he established the first bronze foundry in any American university art program.  his own work, over the next few years was devoted to bronze sculpture and jewelry making.

Morton's work has been widely exhibited at museums in the United States and other countries.

His work is featured in both of my books, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"MOSS" Hello again,
Does anyone recognize the name Moss as a jewelry maker?
I purchased a silver urn shaped brooch and it is marked MOSS, all in caps

submitted by manon kavesky

I don't recoginize that name but know about Moss Agate. It is a member of the quartz family usually translucent with a moss pattern.  Does your silver pendent have a stone?

Eleanor Lee

"AN" or "MN"


(Example is a mark on the outside of the shank on "1960s-on Moderne" artist-crafted sterling ring with a white and a "black" (more dark green) cultured pearl: This is the mark as close as I can scan it. A N? M N? The letters overlap.

Front view of ring with the two pearls. The white pearl has a big blister on one side. It looks "natural" as in having been that way, not a damage. I have never seen this on cultured pearls before, is it normal?

submitted by Liz Bryman

"S.H.M. Co." I have just come across a vase/urn by simspon hall miller but am unable to find anything about it or even marks that are the same. On the bottom it has

S.H.M. Co.
 treble plate
patented march 8 1870.
Then on the inside bottom of it it is stamped 1800

submitted by   Michael

conjoined "WM"

I've acquired a very nice abstract brooch (sterling with a small dot of gold) which I believe is an American studio, mid 20th Century piece.  I don't recognize the maker and was hoping someone else would be familiar with the mark. It looks like a conjoined "WM."

submitted by Marbeth Schon

mourning buckle



I recently bought a vulcanite two-piece buckle at a flea market. I  believe it is a mourning buckle. However, I can't tell if it was  made to mourn the death of somebody well-known or not. Does anybody  have any guesses as to whether the man depicted on the buckle is  famous (e.g., a poet, politician, etc.), or if he is just a generic  man? There is also a mark on this buckle: "C. KUNZE", which is on  the man's shoulder, and of which I have included a picture.

I'd like to know: who (if anybody) is depicted, country of origin,  and who "C. KUNZE" was. If anybody can help with these, or give me  advice about where I should look, I would be very grateful.
submitted by Paul.

The buckle *may* not be a mourning buckle but either a personal buckle set  of the owner or a buckle made for his wife to wear. I.e., the man had it  made with his face on it to identify it in case of theft or loss (or for  pure vanity purposes). Of course, if it's a mourning buckle, perhaps the  man on it represented his father. Other possible reason for wearing a  certain man's face on a buckle: A fraternal society official mourning  object required to be worn for a certain period of time (usually 1 year) to  honor a deceased prominent lodge brother.

In Europe, from the 18th through the late 19th centuries, the folk costumes  for men often included fancy belts and buckles, often made of hammered,  chiseled silver and brass. The MEN were often more Dressed Up than the  women in those times. [A note probably taken from the animal world where  the male is often much more glamorous than the female.] Men sported jewelry  and fancy costume details in a much higher degree on folk costumes than did  the women, in almost all cultures, including in traditionally conservative  countries, such as Germany and Switzerland.

Suffice it to say that original folk costume jewelry was often lovingly  handcrafted during the dark winters when the farms needed less tending,  that the jewelry was specifically made for a loved one, or oneself. With  the advent of the industrial age (after 1840), more machine-made objects,  including traditional "look" folk costume jewelry, would appear at local  fairs and festivals, as well as being sold in stores and by street vendors  in the areas where it previously was only handcrafted. The proliferation of  cheap and ready-made jewelry, trinkets, made the handcrafted pieces less  desirable (back then!), and less of it was made by hand as it could now be  so readily purchased (what else is new).

The name KUNZE is as Germanic as it can get. Whether it "means" anything  would be for the experts to say. 

information provided by Isabelle Bryman

Sterling modernist pin signed "MP, 23, 925" and stylized hallmark.

I'm including the marks and one picture of the pin which I had submitted to Silver Forum earlier. Another member wrote to say she also had a piece with the marks--sort of tool-like or more fancifully Bees, as was also very curious to learn about it.

submitted by Adellar Greenhill



"830S ARN"


(Example wasa Danish skønvirke brooch, c.1910, marked "830S ARN".

submitted by Paul.

"A.R.N." or "A.R.Nielsen" are the marks for Anton Johan Rasmus Nielsen of Haslev, Denmark, in operation from 1905 to 1937.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

"A.T.N. 0.900" Can someone please help identify a mark likely from a maker in Columbia, South America. It is a shield containing crossed hammers, and within the crossed hammers are the letters "A T N", and 0.900. It is an arts and crafts piece, hand hammered. If you can help I will be most appreciative.

submitted by Ken
Helge Narsakka

Helge Narsakka is a Finnish designer who worked for Kaunis Koru in the 1960s.  We would love to have more information this artist.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Bob Natalini

Bob (Robert )Natalini, active in Philadelphia around 1970s-80s, famous for incorporating little components that 'lit up' within his jewelry.

submitted by Gail Selig

Lollita Natachu

Fred and Lolita Natachu are a husband and wife team who work in mosaic and channel inlay.  Lolita is the daughter of Jacob Haloo. Her sisters, Dolly Banteah, Rolanda Haloo and Nancy Lasconsello, are also recognized Zuni artisans.  from:

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Doug Nava

Doug Nava was born and grew up in Southwest Colorado.  His father was Apache and his grandfather(mother’s father) was a Taos Indian.  Doug’s grandfather’s name was on the list of students at St. John’s school in Taos.

Doug went to college in Gunnison in Western Colorado.  He earned a degree in art and was also self taught as he went along.  His wife, Elizabeth, also has an art degree.  One year after graduation, Doug bought Bennett’s Indian and Lapidary.  He made jewelry and sold it in his shop.  His jewelry has evolved over the years from Navajo style to fine inlay work.  Doug is very talented in other art mediums as well including painting and sculpting.


information provided by Marbeth Schon

Artemio Navarret

Artemio Navarrete was the master silversmith from Iguala who moved to Taxco to help William Spratling launch Taller de Las Delicias in 1931.  Navarrete taught and supervised many of Spratling's artists who later established their own successful careers.  In 1936, he opened his own shop named "Chichen-Itza at San Agustin 10, Taxco. 

Many Navarette designs resemble Spratling's designs.  They have either a 980 or 940 silver mark along with the conjoined AN.  Naverette's mark closely resembles that of Alfredo Villasana, but Navarette's is raised and Villasana's is incised.  (from "Mexican Silver Trade and Hallmarks" by Bille Hougart.)

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Gibson Nez



Gibson's jewelry is famous worldwide, and is in the private collections of his Congressman Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-Co) and celebrities such as Elizabeth Taylor, Willie Nelson, Robert Redford, Goldie Hawn, Joan Lunden and many others. Gibson's jewelry began gaining notoriety in the early 80s, and was often referred to as Star Wars jewelry, due to the modern touch he brought to traditional silver and turquoise Indian jewelry. He later began to branch out in his use of materials by using gold, blue lapis, diamonds, coral and of course, turquoise. His intricate designs and exacting detail were unmatched, as well as his use of large stones, and his composition. Gibson was known for his fine-line chisel work and his skillful inlay of gemstones. He used no castings in his work and chose, cut and polished his own gem stones.....Gibson won the prestigious Smithsonian Medal of Honor and more than 700 blue ribbons.....

Gibson, an enrolled member of the Jicarilla Apache Nation grew up on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation at Hillcrest. He began traveling the rodeo circuit as a young man, competing in bull riding, with his uncle, Jackson Velarde, from whom he also learned the basics of his trade. Over time, his skill and unique style developed and began to attract the attention of major art galleries and publications. He was featured in an article in Arizona Highways early in his career, and his work began winning Best of Show at many art shows including the famous Indian Market in Santa Fe, New Mexico as well as Gallup Ceremonial, the Heard Museum, the All Mankind Jewelry Competition in Washington, D.C, and Casa Grande in Arizona. He moved to Santa Fe where he could be closer to the exclusive galleries and customers who regularly sought out his creations. His work has been featured at exclusive galleries such as Wright?s Gallery in Albuquerque, NM, the Scottsdale Trading Post in Scottsdale, AZ, the Tanner Chaney in Albuquerque, NM, the Blue Rain Gallery in Taos and Santa Fe, NM. He was a member of many organizations such as the Indian Arts and Crafts Association and the Institute of American Indian Arts.

Quoted directly from

"New Orleans Silversmiths"


I recently purchased a brooch with the Hallmark "New Orleans Silversmiths".
Does anyone know anything about this studio? The brooch is very reminiscent of Kalo. 

submitted by Joan Gruzen

I didn't realize that "Rainwater's Encyclopedia of American Silver Manufacturers" had some information on New Orleans Silversmiths.  Rainwater says that the company was "founded in 1938 by Karl Dingeldein, native of Hanau,Germany".  I found an old newspaper article at the Williams Research Center in New Orleans that stated that the company was founded by Joseph Antoine Harck, a Belgian emigre "who came to America to exhibit his work on behalf of the Belgian government at the Sesquicentennial Exposition, in Philadelphia, in 1926.....Mr. Dingeldein was his successor.  
Karl Dingeldein came from a long line of silversmiths. The first being Johann Siegmund Kurz of Hanau, Germany (in business until W.W.II)  His son, Karl Kurz left the family enterprise and formed his own company.  I believe that Karl Kurz was the maternal grandfather of Karl Dingeldein.  His father August Dingeldein received the silver patterns used by the Kurrz shop in 1911 after his marriage to Karl Kurz's daughter.
The firm of August Dingeldein and Sons was established in New York City in 1924.  During the depression there were some activities in Chicago that were transferred to New Orleans in 1936.

Karl Dingeldien had a brother, Otto Dingeldein who had his shop in St. Louis, Missouri and later in Cape Girardeau, Missouri.   The Historic New Orleans Collection has an out of print copy of a book titled "The Notebook of Silversmith Otto Dingeldein"  (published in the 1980s) with photographs of some wonderful modernist work done by Otto.

Karl died in the 1960s and the business was purchased by another German, Hans Leutkemeir.  I do not know if he is the present owner, as I have not been able to talk with him but plan to very soon.

The marks of the New Orleans Silversmiths is an ornate German crest with their name in the center (I'm not exactly certain how the center reads).  The mark of Otto Dingeldein is a shield shape with "O.F.D" and three sergeant-type stripes.    There is also another mark for silverplate which is a shield shape divided into three parts with a ring on the left, a chalice on the right and three small cup shapes in the top part.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Artist-silversmith Otto Dingeldein specialized in silver and church pieces. While it's been noted his work is shown in a Historic New Orleans Collection gallery, other Dingeldein objects are also on display in the History Museum in St. Louis, where he lived from 1936 to 1959 (before relocating to Cape Girardeau, Mo.). He emigrated from Germany to America in 1927. He was recognized with numerous awards, including one named for him. From a long line of silversmiths dating back to the 1800s in Germany, Dingeldein lived to age 84. He died in 1991.

information courtesy of Kathy Flood

"Evald Nielsen"



(Example was a compact with applied design with moonstones by Evald Nielsen. The piece measures about 3-3/4 inches across and is solid with a nice patina..)

submitted by Evelyn Yallen

Evald Nielsen was apprenticed to the Copenhagen goldsmith A.Fleron in 1893 to make flatware,but instead of working on flatware became a chaser and engraver. He was awarded a travel grant and in 1903 left his wife and family for the life of a journey man traveling first to Germany and then to Paris.During his travels jewellery design was taking on a new development.Although his later work was typical of the Danish Skonvirke style his early work was inspired by contemporary German jewellery.

Evald returned home in 1905 to start his own business, he was very successful and in 1907 he was able to buy a whole workshop. .Evald jewellery was selling so well all over Norway, Denmark, and Sweden that it was put on a par with Jensen and his collaboration with S.L.Jacobson gave him the exclusive rights to sell his work in Denmark.Norway, and Sweden.

Many silversmiths tried to copy Evalds style with stones almost bursting out of a silver bud,but no one could master his style. He was chosen master of the goldsmiths guild in 1918 which he held until 1948.

Evald Nielsen died in 1958.He always worked for himself and never worked for the company Georg Jensen.

information provided by Vanessa Paterson

Wiwen Nilsson

Wiwen Nilsson (1897-1974) was considered one of the most outstanding modernist metalsmiths in Sweden during his lifetime.  He was appointed court jeweler in Sweden after winning a gold metal in Paris for his silverwork.  His workshop was in the city of Lund, where he employed a out thirty craftsmen who created his designs in metals, stones, and enamels.  His work is highly valued and widely collected throughout Scandinavia and the world.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"J N Sterling"


(Example is a sterling silver linked belt or necklace with the mark "J N Sterling" (first letter is J, but I'm not certain the second letter is an N) on the hook clasp. The piece appears to be Arts & Crafts period and it's 34-5" long). submitted by Kathy
"NOKO" (Example was a pendant marked NOKO? I'm not sure if it's initials, or the full spelling. There's also a designer mark, "Etsuko". Other marks on my pendant are the date letter for 1976, what looks like the Stockholm city mark, and the regular Swedish hallmarks for silver, and "925". The pendant is an open design of textured leaves of some kind. All components look cast, then soldered together. Good weight.The pendant is about 2-1/2" wide by just under 2-1/2" tall.)

submitted by Patrick Kapty

This company is a major dept. store in Stockholm, a very old and prominent fine such store. I don't know about the rest of the name, Etsuko, sorry. Apparently this piece was made to order to be sold in the Nordiska Kompaniet's stores. This store is usually referred to as "NK" [pronounced ENN-KAU, with a hard au sound, as in the word "more" in English] by the Swedes, and uses the initials "N.K." in its advertising. Why the mark is NOKO instead of N.K. I don't know, however, it is possible that the acronym NK couldn't be used.

information provided by Liz Bryman

Regarding previous comments on the mark "NOKO" found frequently on modern Swedish silver jewelry, it was the registered mark used by "Nordisk Kokusai AB" in Sundbyberg circa 1973-1979 and is usually seen with the designer's name or initials. I have not been able to establish a relationship between "Nordisk Kokusai" and "Nordiska Konpaniet," the large and prominent Swedish department store where the first two letters of each word also forms the abbreviated "NOKO." This company had jewelry shows featuring works by major Swedish designers and silversmiths such as Sigurd Persson and Olle Ohlsson and it is possible that the "NOKO" logo was used by them or that the two companies are related.

information provided by Fred Rezazadeh

There was an iquiry regarding a piece I understand to have been bought or acquired from or by way of Nordiska Kompaniet with a marking saying Etsuko. Based on the description, I'm almost certain the piece was made by a Japanese woman named Etsuko who lived in Sweden a very long time. I don't know if she still does. She had a shop on the main strip in Gamla Stan, or Old Town of Stockholm. What is a little odd is the stamp he said was the equivalent of 1976. The leaf design is something I knew Etsuko to make after 1982 sometime at which time my at that time fiance and I commissioned her to design a wedding ring for us of red, white and yellow gold leaves. She loved the cast she'd done for the leaves so much she expanded her line into pendants holding semi precious stones, earings, and broaches. I sold pieces on her behalf in California and New York. I have often gone on-line to find where Etsuko might be keeping shop and this site is the one site that has offered something about the Etsuko whose pieces I will always hold dear to me for obvious reasons. Thank you for existing!

information provided by iscotti

"NORTH, STERLING" Next is a Pin Modernist looking and marked handmade North Sterling

submitted by Roger Erickson
Anybody know the maker of this layered triple leaf sterling goldwash brooch, stamped 925S Sterling Made in Norway with an anchor mark?

submitted by Sheryl

I have just acquired three identically coloured, shaped and marked enamelled sterling butterflies in a range of sizes. The medium-sized one has the Hroar Prydz ' pacman' symbol (sideways 'v' in a circle), while the other 2 have anchor symbols. Comparison to the engine-turned markings confirms that the butterflies are Hroar Prydz. This would strongly suggest that the Norwegian anchor sign is related to this silversmith.

information provided by Jac Cattaneo

"BO", three crowns in a pyramid; "S; 5; U8" I have inherited an old Swedish cake server.  It is 8 1/2 inches long and 2 1/4 inches at its widest point.  It has an engraved scene showing a reindeer and lapplander? and another small scene of a reindeer and a wolf.

I am interested in its date and location of manufacture.

In order, there are stamped on the bottom of the handle the following:

BO; three crowns in a pyramid; S; 5; U8.

submitted by Greg Anderson

I believe your cake server (which sounds lovely) was made by Bror Onnela (my guess is that this is the name of a silversmith as well as a company--but I might be wrong) of Haparanda in 1946.  Onnela was there from 1938-1946, and then is listed in Vittangi from 1947-1949, and then Lulea from 1950-1980.  The three crowns indicate the item was made in Sweden (if they are within a trefoil)
or imported (if within a circle). Most likely your piece was made in Sweden because the maker was a Swedish silversmith.  The "S" indicates the item is silver (.830 or higher) and "U8" is a date mark for 1946.  See Christie Romero's article for MODERN SILVER magazine "Basic Hallmark Identification."

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"Ochoa 925M" I have a silver face pin that is marked on the back ?. Ochoa 925M. The question mark indicates that I an initial that I couldn't make out. Does anyone know anything about this mark? 

submitted by Mary Andrews

"OKS" Anyone know anything about this maker of arts & crafts jewelry?

This is not my piece, but I have a ring with the same mark. Quite
well made...

submitted by Ramona Tung
"ORB" Otto Robert Bade

"Orb"was founded by Otto Robert Bade in the 1950s in New Hope, Pennsylvania.  He served as Rebajes' foreman in the 1940s and 50s and purchased Rebajes' designs and machinery before Rebajes moved to Spain. (Information is from Collectible Silver Jewelry by Frank Rezazadeh.)  Information regarding Orb can also be found in my book  Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement.

information provided by Marbeth Schon


"O.Rlls Olsen "O.R[ U or II ]S -OLSEN"

submitted by Heather

The mark is probably for O. Rlls Olsen, in business from 1971-1973. (Denmark)

information provided by Marbeth Schon

organizational seal This question deals with a piece of gold jewelry, not silver,  but hopefully you all don't mind. I just got a very well-made and  heavy 18k (tested, unmarked) c. 1880 stickpin with an enamel seal.  It has a Maltese cross, with lions between each part of the cross.  Then in the center is a depiction of a plant, with a rose on the left  stem and a thistle on the right. There are three crowns surrounding  this plant. Then, around this seal, is the motto "Tria juncta in  uno" (Lat. for "three joined in one"?). Below that are the words "Ich  Dien" -Lat. for "With God"? Does anybody know which organization  this piece represents?

submitted by Paul

According to a friend of Mystery Marks from Germany, "Ich  Dien" means "To Serve" and not "With God."

information provided by Mona

Ich Dien is the motto of the Prince of Wales. The Thistle is the national symbol of Scotland. The rose is the national symbol of England. The lions are also symbols of the British royal family. 

I have no idea what organization it might be, but it could represent the creation of Great Britain--England, Wales, and Scotland into a single Entity.

information provided by Jane, Viney Ridge

"ep, sterling" Hi Everyone.I have a Fish pin that has a makers mark....
ep in lower case.  Marked sterling as has a genuine pearl for its eye.  Looks Possibly Contemporary Modernist?  Hows that sound HAHA.
Any thoughts would be great! 

submitted by Roger

"O.P. Orlandini

925 1 AR UNO A ERRE"


 (Example is a handsome sterling modern design ring with blue enameling. )

submitted by Ellen Solway

I have had trouble finding out anything about this designer except that they where based in Italy..

information provided by Vanessa Paterson Retro Gallery.

"Orloff" I have a pair of silver dangling Star earrings stamped jcomes, mexico 925. jc-35 on the post, but the star is marked 925 sterling ORLOFF. What is Orloff? Can anyone date this?
"OR NO" (OR on top of the NO), a Z with what looks like a hat on top of it, and in an oval a 3 next to the profile of a woman's head.  I purchased an arts and crafts design silver cigarette case. The marks inside stump me, I hope one of you can shed some light. They are OR NO (OR on top of the NO), a Z with what looks like a hat on top of it, and in an oval a 3 next to the profile of a woman's head.

submitted by Ellen from Santa Cruz

Good day silver forum Hi Ellen as to your cigarette case it was made in France the orno on top of each other. I do have the information some where in my papers so I will go thought and try to find it for you.I have seen this mark on a lot of silver  Jewellery.

information provided by  Vanessa Paterson Retro Gallery

I don't know about the rest of the marks, but without seeing the "profile of a woman's head" you describe, it sounds like it could be a British duty mark stamp.

In 1952-1953 British sterling pieces made for export were voluntarily stamped with the coronation mark of Queen Elizabeth. This duty mark is a woman's head in profile looking to the right and in a small oval. I believe that the UK also used a woman's head in an oval for a stamped duty mark on sterling in the late 1800's of Queen Victoria (looking left). There are other British duty marks for other years, I think there was a woman in an oval stamp in 1934-35 for Queen Mary.

Your "woman in an oval" could be a British duty mark, which could at least narrow your search down to a specific country for the manufacturer/silversmith. Just a thought and hope it helps.

information provided by Cheron


(Example is is a heavy belt which looks, perhaps, like early Dutch Silver (17th-18th C.), mark looks like the number 13 in some kind of very gothic script, the right mark looks like an open monkey wrench head at the top right and some kind of round swirl with a dot at center at the bottom left. The buckle is possibly vermeil with superimposed scrolled fancy details which are cast but handworked and attached by means of forced down and secured heavy-duty spikes which are smooth-finished on the back. The background is darkened silverfinish. The links are made the same way, casts spiked to to backs, then hinged on each side to the parts which have the double flat chains soldered onto them.  Each of the center hinges has its own Roman numeral number in sequential order engraved in it. )

Submitted by Isabelle Bryman

The marks appear to be in the format that was used by or in the city Strasbourg (France?) from the 1650's to the 1750's, according to published reference books. The '13' designates the purity of the silver, and was used widely over many of the (mostly German speaking) countries for a long time.

A tricky thing is that 18th century European marks were widely faked and copied around the late 1800's. The belt is an interesting looking and intriguing object, and deserves closer hands-on examination by someone who would understand it better in the context of its construction and design.

information provided by Angela Saunders

two towers with a capital serif "P"
I purchased this this morning at an antique show and was told it's Danish, dating to 1935. The mark doesn't look right to me -- shouldn't it be three towers, not two? The friend who was with me says she thinks it might have been used as a Communion chalice; the stem shows what we think are Adam and Eve. It's relatively large, measuring about 7 inches from the top of the finial to the bottom, and about 5 inches across.
"P" (with Swedish hallmarks) I might as well kick it off with a question about a lovely sterling silver brooch in my possession. I do know that it is a Swedish piece. It has leaves w/a single pinecone, and has the following hallmarks:  the triple crown mark for local (VS imports) sale, S for sterling, G9 for 1957(?), but I haven't
figured out who would've produced it.  There is a letter P at the beginning of the series.  There also may have been another letter preceding the P, but it is illegible at this point.

Your question about the Swedish maker is difficult to answer without seeing a photo of the mark.  There were at least two designers working during the period your piece was made using "P" as part of their mark.  There is the mark for K.E. Palmberg who designed for Alton and used both "KP" and "K.E. Palmberg" (in script) and Sigurd Persson used "SIGP". 

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Patino, Taxco

submitted by Marbeth Schon

"AP" (for Antonio Pineda)


Can anyone tell me if Antonio ever marked his pieces with AP?  
submitted by Donna

That's a positive yes. Antonio Pineda used the AP hallmark from approximately 1941 to 1949 when he opened his first workshop in Mexico City. I have a silver and amethyst necklace and matching earrings set marked AP which is circa 1940-1945 that is my most treasured silver jewelry. This set looks remarkably like an early Fred Davis necklace,
which I guess is no surprise since Antonio Pineda apprenticed in Valentin Vidaurreta's Mexico City workshop which produced much of the Fred Davis jewelry.

information provided by Cheron

Yes, a simple AP, inside a circle, usually also marked Silver Mexico; also sometimes seen along with his other older mark, Silver by Tono. 

information provided by Bille Hougart

Antonio Pineda

Antonio Pineda  (1919-2009) was born in Taxco, where his family had lived for generations. His artistry will go down in history as one of the very best from Mexico's metalsmiths.  His warm and unforgettable personality and his brilliance live on through the beautiful pieces he created.  

Though his earliest work includes natural subjects and traditional early Mexican designs, his later work, beginning in the 1950s is done in a highly modernist tradition with great ingenuity and quality. His work is some of the most desirable of all that was done in Taxco during his lifetime.

Information can be found in Mexican Silver by Carole Berk and Penny Morrill, Silver Masters of Mexico, by Penny Morrill and William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance.  His work was included in the traveling exhibit, William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance.

You can order Mexican Silver, $59.95 (item #SMB001) or Silver Masters of Mexico, $49.95 (item #SMB002) from MODERN SILVER magazine books  Please add $3.95 for shipping for each book.

See also:

"B&P" or "B3P" or "83P," "4" and Greek woman with head covering, and small cross or dagger My question is about a mystery mark on a silver bracelet with 16 small cameo coins (smaller than our dime) depicting  I think a Greek woman with head covering.  There is a mark on one coin which could be B&P, B3P, or possibly 83P - not sure.   On one side of the clasp is the number 4, and on the other side what looks like either a small cross or a dagger.  I am also not sure if it is sterling or platinum.  Any thoughts?

Many thanks.

submitted by Frances
"ep" Hi everyone,  I am looking for any info on a maker that signed their work in Lower Case letters ep.  It looks to be rather moderne. Any thoughts would be greatly appreciated,

submitted by Roger


conjoined "FP" and a thunderbird mark

(mark for Patania)


I recently acquired some pieces that I am researching.  I believe I have identified the artists, and am looking for a little more information on them.  Two of the pieces I believe are by Frank Patania Sr.  One is a cuff, and one is a necklace.  Both are marked with a conjoined FP, and with a thunderbird mark.  it seems identical to the marks shown in Hallmarks of the Southwest for this artist

submitted by Kristin

One of our SilverForum members, Shari Miller wrote a fabulous two-part article on Patania jewelry. The first part is in the current issue of MODERN SILVER magazine--next issue will carry the second part.  ( Click on "archives" on the MODERN SILVER magazine tool bar at the top of this page to find the articles)

Ronald Hayes Pearson

Prip Pearson Mark

Ronald Hayes Pearson (d. 1977) is known for his clean modernist designs in silver, bronze and gold.  He studied metalsmithing at the School for American Craftsmen under Philip Morton in the late 1940s.  In the 1950s, along with silversmith Jack Prip and woodworker Tage Frid, Pearson opened Shop One.  Though Pearson never "joined academia" he taught classes at schools such as Haystack and Black Mountain College.  Pearson supported himself, his entire life, as a full time craftsman.  His work was included in many prestigious exhibits and won many grants, prizes and awards throughout his lifetime.

Information about Ronald Pearson and photographs of his work can be found in both of my books:
Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970  and Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and his work was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.

information provided by Marbeth Schon
Miriam Peck

Enamels by Miriam Peck are not readily available.  She is mentioned in my book, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement on page 156. She exhibited at the Walker Art Center in 1955. She attended Western Reserve University and the Cleveland Institute of Art and created enamel jewelry in mostly abstract designs on fine silver and copper.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"Fabrice Pelletier", French crab mark, lozenge-shaped maker's mark Found this interesting bracelet this last weekend, and I'm wondering if anyone has any info on the designer. 
Both pieces of the bracelet, the squared oval at top comes off, are hallmarked with the French 'crab' mark for 800 silver or above. The band part of the bracelet is marked as shown in the above picture, and includes the mark "Fabrice Pelletier", and a lozenge-shaped maker's mark, which I can't
make out.

submitted by Patrick Kapty
18 KP I have a ring marked 18 KP.  Would anyone know what the "P" stands for?  I  traded a rather pricy cameo for it and am hoping the P does not stand for Plated.  The dealer assured me the ring is gold.

submitted by Frances
  The P stands for "plumb" - or exact - which means that the gold is exactly 18k with no tolerance (not under-karated). This also means that the ring was made after 1976, when the U.S. National Stamping Act was amended and this
mark was introduced.

information provided by Christie Romero
  Frances, the "P" stands for "plumb", which means it's dead on 18K, not 17, or 19, but 18 on the nose!

information provided by Vicki
"Plateria Solis" A friend of mine found this pair of earrings today and asked for more info on them. I have looked in my Mexican Silver book by Morrill and Berk and am finding confusing info. I found nothing on Solis, but the Plateria sounds like it is the mexican name for taller. Is this correct? If so, is the Solis mean Plateria Solis like Plateria Anita or ?

submitted by Holli

 Pluma Azteca  by Los Castillo I am wondering about pieces by Los Castillo done in the Pluma Azteca 
technique.  I have one and am unsure about what material the multi-colored  backing
is made from. I like the effect of the process--a stained glass sort  of look.

submitted by Marbeth Schon

"Pluma Azteca" means "Aztec feathers" - and that's what they are, dyed 
feathers in resin. For a more detailed explanation, please see my techniques  essay
in William Spratling & the Mexican Silver Renaissance, page  188. Also the
earrings on page 220 in my third edition, in which the dyed  feathers are backed
with metal rather than encased in resin.

information provided by Christie  Romero

"O.P. Plus, Norway"


(Example is a modernist pendant by Plus, Norway marked with initials "O.P.")

submitted by Marbeth Schon

Regarding your question about Norway Design at Plus, I don't think that Ole Bent Petersen was one of the designers and so far as I know the following people designed for its silver shop.

Erling Christoffersen

Anna Greta Eker

Ragnar Hansen

Hein Hoogstad

Odvar Pettersen

Tone Vigeland

The Interior Architect Bjorn Lanke was also associated with the shop.

information provided by Fred Rezazadeh

The Mark O.P. is for for Olav Petersheim, Brummunddal for Norway Silver Designs A/S

information provided by Norwegian friends of SilverForum

KE Palmberg

(Example is a mark with a name -- Sparasina (I think; maybe it is Sparasinia) and a number. There seems to be an "O" or a zero after the name and before the word STERLING. I don't know what that means. The eagle seems to have a 6 in it. )

submitted by Rosalie Isaacs

The mark may be Parisina, which was used by Marcel Boucher for pieces made in Mexico, circa 1940s.

information provided by Christie Romero

James Parker

James Parker, 1914-1987, a San Diego native and educator. He was a professional craftsman who specialized in enamel work and silversmithing. There is an exhibit of his enamel work on permanent display at the Wichita, Kansas Contemporary Museum of Crafts, his work was exhibited widely in the Southwest, I believe he may also have some items in a museum in Oakland, CA.

submitted by Patrick Kapty

"MEXICO SILVER PARRA" This second bracelet is also very heavy and is 1 1/2" wide. It has 3 HUGE amethyst cabochons that are very rounded. It is signed on the clasp MEXICO SILVER PARRA
I can't find much on this designer- found only a couple pieces on web searches and this blurb: "Horacio de la Parra was a manager at the Conquistador silver factory and a good friend of Spratling and Aguilar." What was this factory- in Taxco?

This one is extremely well made and quite heavy- I am assuming it was made pre-1940. 

 submitted by Lorie Matson

Lorie, I can only give you a little information on Conquistador and Parra. Conquistador was a silver company that was formed in the last half of the 1940s by a German industrialist, Axel Wenner-Gren. He purchased a number of silver jewelry and hollowware companies in Mexico City and formed what was called "the largest" Mexico City silver company. They were known primarily for their larger silver item
(pitchers, bowls, etc.) production (not jewelry) because they had more equipment for the efficient manufacture of these larger products than anyone else. They did have their own designers, but often contracted with other designers (such as Spratling and Aguilar) to manufacture and market the other designers' products. (This arrangement lasted less than three years with Spratling because of Conquistador's inability to
perform according to the terms of their contract.) Sam Moxley was the General Manager of Conquistador 1949 - 1950, and I believe that Horacio Parra succeeded him. Parra was a friend of Hector Aguilar's and helped to bring the Aguilar contract to Conquistador.

However...your bracelet was probably produced prior to Parra's involvement with Conquistador. The hallmark he used on your bracelet is different than later ones and there is no eagle mark on your bracelet. That mark was used on silver produced or sold beginning in 1949.

information provided by Phyllis Goddard

de Passille-Sylvestre

Please see: Abstractions, a Sampling of Modern Canadian Jewellers, 1960 - 1980 by Roberta Peach, MODERN SILVER magazine, Dec. - Jan. 2003-2004.
Frank Patania, Thunderbird Shop
"PERSTORP" Swedish three crowns mark, "X8" Here's a stumper for you. I bought three wonderful dark brown bakelite trays or plates, all three have wonderful inlaid sterling designs. Two have super detailed designs of ships and one retangular one has a deer and two dogs chasing it in sterling. These are amazing pieces and I've never run across anything like it before. All three pieces are marked with tiny inlaid sterling plaques on the back which read: PERSTORP (in a retangular cartouche), the three crowns mark in a clover leaf shaped cartouche, S, and another mark I can't figure out, and X8 for the date (which I don't know the date marks for Sweden).

submitted by Jackie Weeks

I had a similar plate by Perstorp with silver cherries on the top. The Perstorp corporation is still in business making thermoset Plastics. They describe their plastics as "amino molding compounds composed of urea formaldehyde (UF) and melamine formaldehyde (MF)"...... Applications include dinnerware, bathroom sinks, ashtrays, caps and closures for the cosmetics industry, precision medical components, electrical wallplates and switches, buttons, and much more."--this is from their web

Bakelite is a combination of carbolic acid and formaldehyde so technically, I guess the plate isn't Bakelite, but very close as it's a thermoset plastic. I am not an expert on Bakelite--just reading my book--so someone else may understand this better. The plate has Swedish silver marks and dates from 1948.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Peruzzi Good Evening silver Lovers! I have a Pin marked Peruzzi Sterling Boston...with a Weird Mother of pearl Center Piece that sits on top and spins??? It also has holes in it 

 submitted by Roger

I'm coming up short finding information on Peruzzi sterling. A friend and I each have a few pieces, but little knowledge on the maker. Can someone tell me if F.W. Peruzzi, Peruzzi Florence and Peruzzi Boston are all the same person? If so, is there a timeline of dates when pieces were made? Any help would be appreciated. 

submitted by Victoria

Your piece is very interesting. I don't understand the Peruzzi, Boston mark. There is a piece on ebay right now signed Peruzzi, Florence. Perhaps they had  companies in different world cities

information provided by Marbeth Schon

According to Deanna Farneti Cera in her book "Amazing Gems" the Perruzi Jewel Shop was a firm founded in Boston by Gino Perruzi in the early 1930s. In 1945, though it kept it's name, the business was sold to Aldo Fioravanti who managed it until it went out of business in 1981.
She also mentions a Vincenizo Perruzi in "Jewels of Fantasy"----so perhaps there were/are two different firms.

information provided by Pat Seal


Phyllis W. Jacobs was a sculptor/jeweler who worked in the 1950s. She showed her work at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1948 and was included in Jewelry Making as an Art Expression by Kenneth Wineberger. 

Her work is included in my book, Modernist Jewelry 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Earl Pardon

Earl Pardon (1926-1991) was a very influential and successful artist who was involved with both large-scale sculpture and jewelry.  He joined his love of painting and metalsmithing through his colorful and exceptionally detailed enamel work.  His work has been included in numerous exhibitions and is in the permanent collections of over fifteen museums including the Renwick Gallery in Washington, D.C. and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. 

He is included in my both my books, Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970  and Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and his work was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.

information provided by Marbeth Schon




Someone I know has a few pieces that they believe are signed by Picasso. I can't find any reference to jewelry designed and signed by Picassso. She thinks their may also be some inscription on the piece to Cocteau. Does anyone know?

submitted by Sharon

Picasso, Pablo, is known to have had a number of his pieces manufactured into gold by Francois and Pierre Hugo, during the period

One such piece "Centaure," was in 18 K gold. An illustration of it can be found in "The Essential Picasso" by Laura Payne, Parragon Books, 2000 pg 234
In the same book, page 179, there is a 1941 collage portrait of Dora Maar, with a crown of gold leaves.

I have seen other pieces of his in gold. Though, I am not aware that he himself would have made anything in precious metals. More likely he'd make a master or maquette for a goldsmith to replicate.

information provided by Tony Rivera
eagle head, crown, "925H, A, S7,
P. Piekainen"
(Examples are a group of silver rings, bracelets and pins.The marks on all the pieces are an eagle head, a crown, 925H, then what looks to be an A, then S7. The paper label reads P. Piekainen on the outside and on the inside they all say a different name or design name or something. A couple are Meloonit and Toista mielta and Harlekiini).

submitted by Jackie Weeks

The pieces were made in 1971, and P Piekainen is Pekka Piekainen- silversmith based in Helsinki from1968 to 1982. I cant find any record of the other names, so I can only assume they are the individual designers within that firm.  The eagle mark is for the company Auran Kultaseppa oy of Turku this mark is still used today

information provided by Venessa Frisbee

The mark for Auran Kultaseppa (greatly enlarged) is on page 269 of Warman's Jewelry 2nd edition.

information provided by Christie Romero

Sigi Pineda


Sigi Pineda, (b. 1929) "developed his own style in the early 1950's, approaching a more international flavor to his work than his contemporaries and predecessors who were exploring symbolic Mexican themes. Sigi's version of organic modernism was inspirational in developing and establishing a new design sensibility in Taxco, Mexican modernism, adding to the established Mexican art vocabulary."  From Sigi Pineda, Looking to the Future, by Sheila Pamfiloff and Javier (Javi) Oliveres.

His work is highly collectible for it's quality and unique, recognizable designs.  It is featured in both Mexican Silver by Carole Berk and Penny Morrill and Silver Masters of Mexico by Penny Morrill.

You can order Mexican Silver, $59.95 (item #SMB001) or Silver Masters of Mexico, $49.95 (item #SMB002) from MODERN SILVER magazine books  Please add $3.95 for shipping for each book. 

Lillian Pines "This hand made sterling silver pin is marked "Lillian Pines" and "Sterling", made by Lillian Pines Jewelry and Silver of New York, New York, and circa 1930’s- 1950’s. Lillian H. Rosenblum Pines was born in Manchester, New Hampshire, graduated from Radcliffe College in 1915, worked for Buttrick Fashions and in the late 1920’s invented the original "beach pajamas." Her New York store was in the Westbury Hotel on Madison Avenue. She died in 1994 at age 100." (quote from an Ebay auction)
"Plafina" Recently got these pretty earrings, marked 10K and 925 with the Eagle Assay mark. Is Plafina merely referring to the metal or is that a maker's mark?


submitted by beegee
"Plat. Mex. S.A., 925 sterling, Hecho en [Made in] Mexico."  The mark reads "Plat. Mex. S.A., 925 sterling, Hecho en [Made in] Mexico." The abbreviation Plat. is probably for Plateria, which just means silversmithy, or "place where silver is made." The initials S.A. are the equivalent of "Inc." So this could translate as "Mexican Silversmithy, Inc."I don't know of any workshop (taller) with this name, but it could very well 
exist. The eagle 20 mark indicates, as Patrick said, manufacture between the late 40s and the late 70s. The number 20 may have been assigned to a specific workshop, but I don't know what or where it is/was. Another "mystery  mark" for the list! 
(or possibly PLATEROFNE )
Mark for Fanny Platero, Navajo silversmith
"JoPoL"  Joan Polsdorfer

JoPol is the mark of Joan Polsdorfer who worked for Georg Jensen, Inc., USA in the 1940s.  According to The Smith Alumnae Quarterly from 1940, Jo Pol lived in Marin County, California.  She was a graduate of the prestigious Smith College in Massachusetts.

information courtesy of metalsmith, Fred Zweig

(Polar Bear Mark) (discussion was as follows):

From: Pam Biallas --"A friend has a brooch with a Polar Bear Logo. Any help is deeply appreciated."

From Vanessa, retrogallery--"its a Finnish ring with the Turku city mark I can not make the other mark out could it be ww?

From Christie Romero--"The mark IS difficult to see clearly, but IF it's a polar bear on an iceberg, it's for Finnish maker Kultasepat Salovaara. I have a couple of their pieces, and this piece looks similar in style. The mark has been used since 1955"

From Ramona Tung--... "I had a brooch that was marked in the same manner (813H, the Turku city mark, etc). The Polar Bear was not on an iceberg, but had its front paws raised slightly higher than its rear legs. I asked Patrick Kapty about it (co-mod of SF), and he had told me that he remembered 2 companies with Polar Bear logos from Finland, and one difference was the height of the front paws relative to the back (he didn't mention an iceberg). However, at the time, he didn't know which company it was, and we left it at that"

From Christie Romero-"-The drawing of the mark I mentioned shows the bear standing on a block of something with an irregular shape. I interpreted that as an iceberg! ;-) Now that doesn't mean that the mark will be EXACTLY the same as it is stamped on the silver. I just looked at a bracelet I have with a 1974 date letter, Turku assay. The bear's front legs are slightly higher and he's standing on something irregular and flat.

There is another bear mark, very similar, but not used until 1997. So the date letter is another important factor."

Ambrogio Pozzi I recently bought a small silver plate tidbit tray by Italian Designer Ambrogio Pozzi from Italy. I am so happy because I like his work a lot. The piece I found is well marked with his name. However I only know of his work in Pottery. My question is does anyone know who produced the silver for him?

submitted by Patrick Barry

"PP" I read in one ebay description that the mark "PP" (stylized) is for Carl Poul Petersen and the description goes on to say that he is Canadian and a son-in-law of Georg Jensen. Can anyone confirm or deny? The pieces I have seen w/ this mark are very Jensen-like.

submitted by Nancy Hunt

PP does indeed stand for Carl Poul Petersen and he was Jensen's son-in-law. His firm was in business for a fairly long time (1940s to 1970s) in Montreal and did a great deal of work for the Jewish community there, as well as othernon-sacramental pieces of silver. The designs are well-made, and they often do look similar to Jensen pieces but have their own unique look.

information provided by Evelyn Yallen

Poul Petersen born 1895 died in 1977. He apprenticed with Jensen when he was 13yrs old for a period of 5 years, became a Master Silversmith, married Jensen's daughter "Inger" in 1922. Then they moved to Montreal, Canada in 1929 at the height of the depression and was employed by Birks & Son as their Master goldsmith in 1932. He then went on his own briefly from 1937 to 1939 only to return to Birks in 1939. Around 1944 he resumed his store and it remained in operation till 1975. He was the primary silversmith to the Bronfman's Family...they were the richest family in Canada at that time. According to Ola Petersen (child) about 65% of the business was conducted with elite American clients with exclusive specialty orders and if you had to ask the price well...... He crafted jewelry, flatware, tea sets, serving pieces, bar sets, etc. Fabulous pieces which are highly collected here in Canada. His prices are pretty much on par with George Jensen.

information provided by Joanne Brennan

Some of the Petersen pieces are more collectible than others; I would hesitate to say that they are all equivalent to Jensen in terms of price. The larger pieces (tazzas, serving bowls) certainly command a fair price in the range of $1,500 to $3,000 (and sometimes higher), depending on size and design. A lot of the smaller pieces, particularly the jewelry, sell for far less than the equivalent type of piece in Jensen. I have two Petersen bracelets and they are by no means as substantially made as the Jensen I have. Generally, they are hollow, though the designs and workmanship are excellent.

information provided by Evelyn


Hroar Prydz I have just acquired three identically coloured, shaped and marked enamelled sterling butterflies in a range of sizes. The medium-sized one has the Hroar Prydz ' pacman' symbol (sideways 'v' in a circle), while the other 2 have anchor symbols. Comparison to the engine-turned markings confirms that the butterflies are Hroar Prydz. This would strongly suggest that the Norwegian anchor sign is related to this silversmith.

information provided by Jac Cattaneo

Pedro Pujol

Pedro Pujol was a silver/coppersmith in Greenwich Village in the 1940s-50s.  According to Armand Winfield, Pujol and Rebajes would have daily fights in the street over who copied whose designs (which was good for business because of the attention it gathered).  It is rarer to find pieces by Pujol than Rebajes since, as far as I know, he never went into serious production. Some say he was Rebajes's brother, but I do not have proof of that.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

'm hoping someone has seen this mark before: It is on the back of anArt Deco sterling marcasite and plique a jour brooch. The design reminds me of some TF itemsI've seen in books.

submitted by Adrienne

"50 AR 925" I just unearthed (looking through a box I had packed away) a bracelet with 50AR 925 marking on it. Does it ring a bell with anyone? It is a solid nicely made geometric style if that helps.

submitted by Mimi in Australia

Though I don't know who made your bracelet, I'm pretty sure it's Italian as you often see the AR mark on Italian jewelry.

In Fred Rezazadeh's book "Collectible Silver Jewelry" he says that "The Italian national silver standard mark adopted in 1934.....(consisted) of a cartouche which contained an identification number followed by the two letter initials signifying the Italian province where the mark was registered." The photograph on page 148 is of a cartouche with two numbers and "AR." Maybe someone else can be more specific about the particular mark on your 

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"925, 122 AR" (Example is a sterling Stingray pendant with green and brown enamel sections.The mark reads, "925, 122 AR". pic)

submitted by Lisa Youell

"AR" set inside a half circle with arrow heads on each end of the curved line Need help in identifying the following silver mark: Capital letters---- AR ----set inside a half circle with arrow heads on each end of the curved line. Mark is on a silver ring.

submitted by Donald R Custe

"CMR" arm with a sword and bird in a square Sounds like you're describing the mark for Charles M. Robbins Co. of Attleboro Mass. If you have Dorothy
Rainwater's American Jewelry Manufacturers (and you should if you need to i.d. American maker's marks), the marks are on page 201. The shield frames an arm with a sword, and there is also a bird in a square, plus the initials CMR.
Desert Rose Trading Company
 "STERLING HPR" Hi, I have two items, one clearly marked STERLING HPR and the other is missing the "H". Here are pics, if anyone can tell me who this is:
 submittred by Karen Beuning
"B R & R" My Grandmother has asked me to find out about a pitcher for her. The only thing I can find on it is B R & R
submitted by Laura L. 
"Rafael "(in script) ".925" submitted by Ray Elliott

For information on Rafael go to     You can print out the pages

.information provided by Joanne Brennan

Henning Rasmus(s)en Anyone knows biographical data about a Danish silversmith named Henning Rasmus(s)en ?. Mark in script.Would appreciate your input. TRM, New York
"JR" in a triangle Hi all, I have a mark question. I have a necklace that is marked "Madein Italy, Sterling" and has a "JR" in a triangle. Any ideas???
Reed and Barton I would like help to ID some silver hallmarks.

They are on the back of what would have been a spoon or fork and is now a beautiful ring.

There are 3 stampings as with Brittish hallmarks.
I can not find the first mark which would ID the area that it was made in. I have looked in my Hallmark book and in  hallmark sites today......maybe I am just missing something...
Please take a look!

Eagle or Bird facing center
B or R
Lion facing Center (as with British hallmarkings)
There is also the word STERLING in old lettering.

submitted by Catherine  

Although your image is not loading, I can tell you that the marks are those of Reed and Barton of Taunton, Massachusetts.  If the word "STERLING" appears on an item (espcially a flatware item), it is almost certain to be American.  Many American companies used marks that resembled English hallmarks. 

I hope this helps!

information provided by Paul

Max Reig Does anyone have information on Max Reig.  I went to Silver Forum mystery
marks and didn't really find any information such as who he is, time period of
jewelry, etc.  Please inform if anyone knows.  Thanks,

submitted by Donna from Richmond, Virginia
merry renk

merry renk has played a very important role in the American studio jewelry movement since the 1950s. In the late 1940s, she studied with Laszlo Maholy-Nagy in Chicago, where she opened a gallery called "750 Studio." She began working with wire, forming simple shapes into designs for jewelry.

In 1948, she moved to California where she worked full time making jewelry. She is well-known for work in enamels and interlocking forms.  In 1974, renk received a National Endowment of the Arts Craftsmen Award for her work with plique-a-jour enameling. She had solo exhibitions at the San Francisco Museum of Art in 1954, The M.H. De Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco in 1971, The Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of History and Technology, Washington D.C. in 1971, and a retrospective at the California Crafts Museum in Palo Alto in 1981.

More information about merry renk and photographs of her work can be found in both of my books, Modernist Jewelry,1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and her work was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

the boar's head (French silver mark) and "H" and "RGX" or "RGY" (Example is a silver locket with green cabochon stones (probably chrysoprase). There are tiny hallmarks on the bale which I tried to draw in the position they are located: I think the animal head is the boar's head (French silver mark?), and the other two are an H, and either RGX or RGY. The pendant has an English A&C look to me, but the animal head mark puzzles me)

submitted by Ramona Tung


(Example is a pair of Mexican sterling silver earrings)

Ric:  Ric is Erika Hult de Corral, her shop is in Puerto Vallarta, opened in 1968 (she sold to other shops before that).  She worked in Taxco before going to Puerto Vallarta (she arrived in Taxco in 1966).  The "3" in the eagle mark indicates these earrings were made in Taxco. Ric studied with Sigi, and was clearly influenced by him, but, according to a newspaper article about her, she deplored copying.

information provided by Christie Romero

"A. Ring, 925S,  Denmark"

Also I got some earrings at the same time and they have a mark I've never
seen, A. Ring, 925S, Denmark.

submitted by Jackie Weeks
"Max R..G"  (Max Reig) Here is a leaf pendant, marked sterling and Max R...G.
I couldn't find the mark in any of the usual references.
Anyone know it?

submitted by Karen Beuning

I believe it says "Max Ring". I think I've seen some of his pieces.

information provided by Ramona Tung

Max Reig or Rieg, I've had some items by this person.

information provided by Lonny Rosen

Max Rieg. Does anyone know who he is and when he designed jewelry? Thanks.

submitted by Donna

Max Reig was a Master silversmith at Colonial Williamsburg during the first half of the 20th Century.  I do not have exact dates.  He was commissioned and made a pair of 18th century style chandeliers hanging in the St. Bede Catholic Church.  I think this was in the early 40's. I have seen a pewter spoon marked with his mark.  He taught classes in metalwork in Virginia and had a jewelry store in the Post Office building in Williamsburg.

information provided by Fred Zweig

"HR"(conjoined in a square) (Example is a tiger eye bracelet marked 'sterling' 'hand made' and makers mark H conjoined with an R in a square. )

submitted by Adrienne Shivers

"ROACH" (Ruth Roach"

Roach was born in Chisholm, Minnesota in 1913. Like many other modernist jewelers, she began by studying painting at the Chicago Art Institute, and with William Henry Watson of Chicago. She also took all the available art
courses at the State College of Iowa. Originally interested in pottery, Roach moved on to jewelry in the early 1950s, studying, in 1954, with Robert von Neumann. She married the owner of a grain elevator company, and settled
in Plainfield, Iowa. She was the mother of three sons. Roach had her first one-man show at the Des Moines Art Center in 1954, and, for the next fourteen years, exhibited widely across the Midwest and New York, garnering no less than sixteen awards along the way.

Roach is remembered not only for her remarkable creative output -- she only made one of a kind pieces, and many of them at that -- but for being a tireless proponent of the arts and crafts in Iowa. She acted as the President of the Iowa Designer Craftsmen guild, and was in great demand as a
speaker across the state for her enthusiastic demeanor and quick wit. As a craftsperson, she felt obligated to help make others aware of crafts as art: "My aim seems to be to help Iowans and the Midwest to become aware of these
good things.

information provided by Victoria Tillotson

see RUTH ROACH, an uncommon jeweler

Michael Roanhorse

Michael Roanhorse was born and raised in Crystal, New Mexico's Navajo Reservation on the Chuska Mountains.  He is at the forefront of the Native Arts Scene and has gained significant recognition among his contemporaries, garnering accolades at the nation's top venues: including the Santa Fe Indian Market, Heard Museum Guild Indian Fair and Market, the Smithsonian National Museum for the American Indian, and the Eiteljorg Museum.

(taken from

information provided by Marbeth Schon


I got a really great sterling ring recently which is signed Roach 2, on the inside. I know I have seen something recently about this mark. Could it be Ruth Roach? and is there any reference anywhere for this designer. I looked in Christie Romero's book under the page number's listed for this designer but the page numbers don't coincide with the reference.

Any help here is really appreciated.

submitted by Jackie

I recently purchased this somewhat mod bracelet with an opal. It's marked ROACH2 STERLING. Does anyone know about this designer?

"Roach2" is the mark of Bill and Patsy Roach. Ruth Roach (see above) was Bill's mother.  They began showing their work in 1961 and participated in national outdoor shows winning many prizes and purchase awards. Their work is in the permanent collection of the Mitchell Museum in Illinois and several museums in Iowa.  Bill died at the early age of 57 in 1996 and Patsy is not making any more pieces.  They were a very special team.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Robbert  (Sweden)

Deborah Roberts  

Charles M. Robbins


I have a Sterling Brooch with great Green Champleve Enamelling...weird makers marks....first is is actually signed champleve sterling and then three stamps...first is a bell like symbol with 3 letter is a shield with what looks like an arm holding a Knife?? Last is a bird facing left 

submitted by Roger Erickson

The three stamps are the hallmarks for the firm Charles M. Robbins, which began business in 1892 in Attleboro, Massachusetts and is known for its sterling and enamel jewelry and souvenir spoons.  The hallmarks are: a partially conjoined "CMR" in a diamond shaped cartouche,  an arm wielding a sword in a V shape and a bird on a perch in a rounded square.  (Although I have not seen it, another mark for the company is a different version of the conjoined letters "CMR" in a diamond with "Trade" above and "Mark" below.  Charles M. Robbins later became Robbins Co. whose mark is the letter "R" in a winged diamond shape.) Clear pictures of these marks and others may be found at

information provided by Caroline Crystal

Danny Romero


"Danny Romero is of both Yaqui and Spanish heritage. He creates jewelry and paintings from his home in New Mexico. Growing up in Douglas, Arizona, he has been working with stone and silver for over 20 years...He was one of five silversmiths invited to the Night of the First Americans at the Kennedy Center in Washington D.C., and he has had showings of his jewelry in galleries and museums in many parts of the country as well as in Germany, Japan, and Canada." (taken directly from )

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Robert Rose I know this isn't silver but I have question and wondering if anyone knows who might of worked for Robert Rose and designed this pair of earrings? They are clearly marked Robert Rose with a diamond on the back . The modern
design is very appealing. They are not symmetrical and have a very hand made look to them. The small stones are goldstone and tiger eye. The large stone might be carnelian or plastic. The metal is copper.

Robert Rose was a designer who came from a jewelry family much like mine. The Robert Rose company was located in NYC. They sold to the major catalogs
and department stores. Robert Rose died, apparently of Aids, and his family decided not to darry on his company. I think I read in one of the trade papers that the Robert Rose name has been licensed to another company.
Robert Rose, was a very talented designer who is sadly missed within the costume jewelry and watch community.

Hi, I used to work for Robert Rose when it was Coro. The designer was either Robert before he died or Gail Frund or one of her Asst.

information provided by  Beverly

Herman Roth

Herman Roth studied at the Crafts Students League and the Museum of Modern Art.  He was an instructor in art metal at the 92nd Street "Y" in New York and worked in many metals, especially sterling silver.  He used ivory, ebony and enamels to accentuate his designs and showed a silver and wood shuttle pin in the Walker Art Center's Contemporary Jewelry Exhibit on Paper, issue #33, Design Quarterly, 1955. (taken from my book, Modernist Jewelry, 1930 - 1960, The Wearable Art Movement, page 172.)

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"C. Ruopoli"


(Example is a pin marked "By C. Ruopol (or Ruopoli)" with the word sterling impressed in another spot. The type is almost cursive; reminds me of some of the Nouveau lettering.The brooch has an Arts and Crafts influence and actually reminds of me of some of the early Scandinavian work. It is one and three quarter inches by one and a half inches, with a large oval moonstone in the centre. pic)

submitted by "Evelyn Yallen"

Today I purchased a lovely pin with a moonstone, signed STERLING BY C. RUOPOLI BLACK STARR & GORHAM. Can anyone provide any info on the designer or company? Thanks!!

submitted by Ellen

C. Ruopoli was a designer for Black Starr and also for Gorham, likely American, and was apparently influenced by Jensen.

  information provided by Sharon Harper

Ruopoli was a jewelry designer for Black Starr and Gorham. His jewelry was in the style of Georg Jensen. Black, Starr & Gorham was on Fifth Avenue, but was around later than the Depression. The turn of the century Tiffany competitor, much loved by the very rich, was Black, Starr, Frost & Gorham.

information provided by Jane Viney Ridge

"V R" (combined) I recently purchased this well crafted mod pin with carnelian stone. The mark is a V and R combined, STERLING. Anyone familiar with this mark? 


submitted by Ellen

"PWR" I would welcome anyone's help in identifying this repousse .800 silver box. 
It is signed PWR and measures 7.5" x 5" x 3.25" tall. It has a northern European look, almost folkloric.

submitted by Katherine

submitted by MIKE
  We have recently acquired an interesting mod sterling pin with an mysterious maker¹s mark.  It is entirely hand made with a sort of art deco flair! It is signed handwrought sterling Schimptt as near as we can decipher.  The ³Schimptt ³ mark appears to be double stamped and the last part is not real clear.  Although, if someone out there is familiar with this maker it should be clear enough to recognize.   It is very well crafted and has beautiful natural agate stones.    It came in a group of other Mod/Studio type pieces including a great Henry Steig brooch.  Thanks again to all of the great people who make this group so much fun and highly informative too.

submitted by Doug & Jessica
"Seffield, 1910", "S", star symbol, "B" Seffield, 1910 in nurse buckle, the master mark is S star symbol and B
pair of outstretched wings with an "S" in the center


Hi. I have an arts and crafts pin that is beautifully handwrought.
 Signature on the back is a pair of outstretched wings with an S in the  middle. Then sterling 1094. The pin features three horizontal sterling bars with three square hand wrought pieces spaced on top of  the bars. One features a spider in a web, one a seahorse, and one a  great egret. Extremely well made with old "C" type closure. It is a  very heavy piece weighing over 1 ounce on my postal scale. The  workmanship is superb.

submitted by Michelle

The mark may well be that of George W Shiebler & Co, New York. You will find the mark and examples in Warman's Jewelry by Christie Romero. You will also find the mark in The Encyclopedia of American Silver Manufacturers (Rainwater), her American Jewelry Manufacturers, and various other reference works on American silver. Sounds like a nice piece.

information provided by Willie Elliot

"A S" overlaid with an "H" (Danish) The top of spoon depicts a a scene from Han Christian Andersen's book, "The Flying Trunk". The rest of the spoon is unadorned. 6" long - Bowel is slightly bigger that your typical teaspoon. Two marks on the back:
* 3 Towers with a 53 underneath it (my research says that 3 towers means silver vs s-plate)
* A "S" overlayed with an "H" or vice versa (guessing that is the makers
"S" (within a circle) "wertvolle, handarbeit" I've got 3 bracelets and 2 pendants that have cubist designs of matte enamel ... they are signed w/ an s w/in a circle under the glossy enamelled on the back . 1 pendant also has a paper sticker which reads : fueremaille , under that is the s w/in a circle and a "flame" in a square , under that it reads wertvolle handarbeit ... can anyone tell me who the company / maker is ? thanks 

submitted by Heather

The "S" in a circle is for Sholtz & Lammel.  For more information on German enamels please see

crown, "S", and shield I have some kind of Sterling Silver oblong platter with markings of: a crown, "S", and sheild.
Can anyone identify this for me?

submitted by Dennis

According to the "Encyclopedia of American Silver Manufacturers," 5th Edition by Rainwater & Fuller the mark you describe is that of the "Sheridan Silver, Co., Inc." of Taunton, Mass.  "Begun in 1944 as the C & C Silver Company...Incorporated in 1946 as Sheridan Silver, The largest independent silver manufacturers..."  Hope this helps.

information provided by D.Burgess
"HAS" (Finnish mark) 1). Could anyone identify a Finnish maker's mark of HAS.

2). Could anyone recommend a good reference book or online list of Finnish hallmarks and maker's marks?

submitted by Greg

"HAS" (Finnish mark)

The Finnish maker mark "HAS" was registered for:
Salonius & K:nit,  Helsinki  1934-1952
Oy Kultajalostamo Ab,  Helsinki 1942-1954
Salonius, Holger Albert,  Helsinki  1954-1971

Information provided by Anne Palkonen,

I am also a "Finn fan." You can find a number of Finnish makers' marks in the Scandinavian appendix of the third edition of Warman's Jewelry. There are also quite a few photos of Finnish jewelry in the Scandinavian/Finland section, including the marks as struck on them. Ginger Moro's book, European Designer Jewelry, has a list of Finnish date letters in the chapter on Finland, as does Tardy's International Hallmarks on Silver.

There is a book of Finnish makers' marks published by a regulatory branch of the Finnish government (in Finnish), but it's not easy to come by, unless you know someone in Finland. As far as I know, there is no online list.

information provided by Christie Romero


"SZIGETI" An oval box, 2 x 1 3/4 inches (5 x 4.5cms), weight 46.4g, stand away hinge, floriated thumb piece, gilded interior with an oval striped 'honey' agate set into the base. The lid is set with a carved shell cameo with a classical scene, probably that of Hippolytus (a winged male jumping over a shield being drawn by three horses). The only mark on the base flange, within a rounded end, slightly bulging, rectangular punch with a double border is "SZIGETI".
Tankard (or pitcher) mark on bronze sculpture
I'm  attaching photos of the two pieces I have,  both about 3", and one of the mark of a pitcher or jug.  I thought they were ceramic but have been told they're bronze.

submitted by Tina Haase
"Taxco, Mexico, 925" (in a circle) 
with  "DS" in the center
Can anyone tell me whether the following hallmark identifies the maker?

In a circle = Taxco, Mexico, 925 
In center of circle = DS

submitted by Vera

Even though your photo didn't make it through, the initials DS in the circle of words are the initials of the silversmith. Sorry I do not know who "DS" is, however, I have seen his/her initials on many Damaso Gallegos designs, who is most well known for his flower design jewelry in sterling, such as orchids and lilies, and little bell designs (very beautiful pieces). Because the work and the style of "DS" ~ as well as the quality of craftsmanship, is similar to Damaso Gallegos, it is likely that "DS" was a student of Damaso Gallegos and worked in his shop. "DS" is one of those old Taxco mystery silversmiths that I too would like to know more about! 

information provided by Cheron

"G with an "S" in the center, "TOSTRUP, NORWAY" I just acquired a lovely necklace by J. Tostrup, Norway with a maker's mark that I believe I have seen before, but can't place and was hoping someone else would recognize. It looks like a "G" with an "S" in the center. 

submitted by Marbeth Schon

The mark is for Gine Sommerfeldt who was born June 30, 1939. She apprenticed at Tostrup and graduated from the National College of Arts, Crafts and Design in 1959. She worked for ONEIDA Ltd., New York and has had her own workshop from 1964. Her jewelry is found in several museums, and has also been purchased by HM The Queen Sonja of Norway. 

 information provided by Lennart & Svein ( 

Pedro S"


(Example is a Taxco mark. It is on a piece with no eagle (pre 1948?), so I have no other thing to show you but the name: Pedro S., written in a semi-printing/semi cursive manner.)

submitted by Rosalie Isaacs

sajen (Example is a pair of contemporary sterling earrings set with what look like moonstone, but could be just cloudy glass. They are signed sajen -in lower case.)

submitted by BeeGee McBride

Sajen is a big designer of contemporary silver jewelry made for them in Bali, Indonesia. They show at all the Gem & Jewelry Shows around the country. They do a lot of moonstones (genuine), amethyst, garnet - all the stones you commonly see in the contemporary silver from Bali .jewelry. Price range: $15-60 or so, wholesale. (That includes necklaces etc)

information provided by Marilyn

"Salamone" (Example was a sterling silver bracelet with dragon motif)

submitted by Pat Seal

Salvador Teran

Salvador Vaca Teran was an outstanding silver designer and technician.  He began in the 1930s working as a zorrita at Las Delicias with William Spratling.  In 1939, he joined Los Castillo where his jewelry was sold under that Los Castillo mark for many years.  In 1952, he established his own workshop with twenty-five silversmiths in Mexico City.  His work is unique in its use of overlapping planes. He is also known for combining metal with stone mosaics that were made into trays, pitchers, etc.

His work is highly collectible and quite rare.

Information can be found in Mexican Silver by Carole Berk and Penny Morrill, Silver Masters of Mexico, by Penny Morrill and William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance.  Her work was included in the traveling exhibit, William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance.

You can order Mexican Silver, $59.95 (item #SMB001) or Silver Masters of Mexico, $49.95 (item #SMB002) from MODERN SILVER magazine books  Please add $3.95 for shipping for each book. 

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"Salvador, Marbel, S.A." Does anyone know anything about costume jewelry designed by Salvador Teran
bearing the Salvador mark as well as "Marbel, S.A."? I am curious about history and values of some ceramic and pot metal pieces.

 I too recently purchased a Salvador/Marbel piece. I liked the design even tho it was not sterling (but a pot metal). I would be interested to know more about how "Marbel" came to be, who established it and when. I am pretty sure my piece (and Marbel) is fairly new, perhaps even a reproduction of Salvador, given his design style, thats OK w/ me. But again, any info on Marbel would be appreciated. I'm sure you have seen the well made Salvador knock offs - tho marked by some other maker; which makes me wonder if his molds are now "out there" like the Margot molds.

information provided by Sam 

Marbel was an inexpensive mass produced department store line, with items designed by Salvador, made of cast pot metal. All the pieces I've seen were gold plated and usually with faux stone faces, and not of very high quality. I believe them to be from the 60's, although I don't know the span of years of their manufacture.

My experience is that these pieces do not have a strong following and the prices are dramatically different than his sterling, brass and copper works.

information provided by Sheila Pamfiloff 

"H. SANTANA" I have a very heavy Mexican silver bracelet similar in style to those of Antonio Pineda. It has six silver panels connected by rods and on each panel is a carved onyx face similar to Fred Davis work. It is a very well done bracelet with marks "H. SANTANA" "Silver Mexico and Sterling (upside down). Does anyone know of "H. SANTANA". Did he possibly work with Antonio or F. Davis? 

submitted by  Neil 

Neil. Can't tell you much except I've seen a number of pieces by H.Santana, usually marked: Sterling Mexico H. Santana, forming a triangle, also marked "silver." The work is always quite good. There is no "eagle mark" for H. Santana, meaning that the work is probably from the late 1930's to mid 1940's. 

information provided by Bille Hougart

Unknown mid 20th century Mexican silversmith who signed "JS" in script
"GLS" (in a shield)



(example is a pair of Moderne sterling earrings (screwbacks). The marks are "Handwrought, sterling, and then inside an impressed shield shape is, I believe, cls, in small letters, or it's a Gls.)

submitted by Jackie Weeks

Since I've been told that the GLS inside a shield is George Salo, I have been able to find him in a couple of my books, however one book refers to him as George K. Salo, so what does the L stand for in GLS? Is it the same George Salo?

submitted by Donna

Your earrings appear to be by George Salo. His mark is 'GLS" within a shield. I don't know too much about him except that he exhibited at the Third National Exhibition of Contemporary Jewelry at the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 1955. He was a member of the American modernist movement of that period and was from Sutton, New Hampshire. I also have some information from the Walker with photos of his work. His work is pictured in "Warman's Jewelry, 2nd Ed." by Christie Romero and also in "Silver Jewelry Designs" by Nancy Schiffer and my book, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art  Movement."  (please read on)

Caveat:  This is an example of  following the lead of someone else instead of doing new research. The mark GLS (in a sheild) is attributed to George Salo in Silver Jewelry Designs by Nancy Schiffer. When I first started collecting modernist jewelry, I had at least two pieces with the GLS mark that I also attributed to George Salo after seeing the piece in Silver Jewelry Designs.  When I wrote my book, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement, I photographed a piece by George Salo that was marked "SALO."  I thought, perhaps George Salo marked in two different ways--there is not much information to be found regarding George Salo so I had nothing to help me prove otherwise.  Recently, Ramona Tung wrote to let me know that she had discovered that the GLS mark is not that of George Salo, but that of Charles Leslie Smith.  At this time, I assume that "SALO" is the correct mark for George Salo and not GLS (in a sheild shape). Please read Ramona's email below.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

I thought you might want to know that the hallmark of "GS in a shield" is not the hallmark of George K Salo.  It is actually the hallmark of C Leslie Smith, an Allentown, PA jeweler, who is still making jewelry today, and much of it is modernist in design.  Locals tell me that he's been making jewelry since at least the 1970s (they think).  He also sells other items like windchimes, wood carvings, etc.  The store is like an upscale gift shop.

I couldn't find the photo in the Warman's books, but in Marbeth's book, the mark on pg 263 (for pendant on page 172) is that of C Leslie Smith.It is a CLS in a shield, not a GS.  I was tipped off by a thread I saw in the SMPUB forums a few years ago:

And since I happened to be in Allentown last week, I paid a visit t o the shop, and sure enough, it is the mark they use on their jewelry.   The larger pieces of jewelry (bracelets, large rings, maybe the pendants) are marked STERLING HANDWROUGHT and CLS in a shield.  This would explain why the jewelry appears regularly in the marketplace.

 information provided Ramona Tung

"M & J Savitt, sterling, 14k" (Example was a Sterling and 14K pendant in the shape of a bird. The whole thing is sterling and the birds top feather is done in 14k and so is the accent on the frame of the pendant. It's signed by M & J Savitt, sterling, 14k). submitted by Jackie Weeks

THey used to have a shop in the Bloomingdales mall in Chicago.Very current - large, expensive silver.M&J [Michelle and Janis] Savitt(sisters) started in the 70s designing costume jewelry. They now produce sterling and some gold, platinum and precious stones-in Dept Stores--they are mentioned in Vogue in 1972 and 1977--

information provided by Pat Seal

I recognized their name from my retailing days in the '80s, I see a mention of them in :Accessories Magazine for 1994: In addition, many bridge sterling designers like M+J Savitt, Robin Rotenier, and Erica Courtney are combining diamonds with lesser-priced precious gems and metals.

---and from Jeweler's Circular Keystone, their current Javit's Show info:M & J Savitt (Company number : 2947)10 West 46th Street New York NY 10036 Tel : 212-869-5228, 800-3-SAVITT   Fax : 212-869-7152 Booth number : 36045

Products :

- Cubic Zirconia Jewelry

- Designer Jewelry

- Diamond Jewelry

- Sterling Silver Jewelry

Also, there are a few retail jewelry shops listing them as one of the lines they carry.So, they are evidently still in business.

information provided by Marilyn in central MA


We have recently acquired an interesting mod sterling pin with an mysterious maker¹s mark.  It is entirely hand made with a sort of art deco flair! It is signed handwrought sterling Schimptt as near as we can decipher.  The ³Schimptt ³ mark appears to be double stamped and the last part is not real clear.  Although, if someone out there is familiar with this maker it should be clear enough to recognize.   It is very well crafted and has beautiful natural agate stones.    It came in a group of other Mod/Studio type pieces including a great Henry Steig brooch.  Thanks again to all of the great people who make this group so much fun and highly informative too.

submitted by  Doug & Jessica @

You pin is by Mary Schimpff, see Mary Schimpff-Webb, A Career Devoted to Excellence, MODERN SILVER magazine

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"L Schmallie" ("L" is in script and the "Schmallie" is in block letters") (Example is a sterling silver bracelet and ring set marked  "L Schmallie"The "L" is script writing, and "Schmallie" is printed.)

submitted by Leslie

I wanted to reply to this..L. Schmallie is a Navajo Silversmith.  Leonard Schmallie.  he recently passed away on 11-19-06.  He is a relative of mine and he marks all his jewelery in that way.

information provided by Kristina Kelly

Christian Schmidt

mark on hand-wrought items

mark on cast items

Christian Schmidt was a Minnesota studio jeweler who exhibited at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis in 1955. He did magnificent designs based on intricate plant and pod forms. He was a friend and colleague of Ruth Roach.

He exhibited at the 1956  "American Jewelry and Related Objects" competition in Rochester, New York where he won "Best in Class Awards" for a silver and gold pendant and a gold and ebony bracelet as well as a purchase prize for a silver bracelet. He also won awards at the 1959 Midwest Designer-Craftsmen competition and the 1958 and 1959 Minnesota State Fair Fine Arts Competitions.

He was considered to be one of the foremost designer-craftsmen in the United States during his short career and was one of twelve jewelers whose work was accepted for exhibition at the Brussels World's Fair. 

His work is featured in both of my books, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Carl Schon (Schoen)



Not being a "silver" person I am at a loss to any knowledge of the following artist. Can anyone shed any light on the designer for me? Carl Schoem, German artist, about the 1940's. I understand he made rings. If anyone has any examples of his work, I would love to see them.

submitted by Elaine Kula

I'm not sure if you mean Carl Schoen. If so, he was a silversmith from Baltimore (probably originally German, but I don't know). I had a handhammered ring by him at one time. His mark is very distinctive being a vertical conjoined and elongated "C S". For those of you who have the book, there is a photo of a ring in "Silver Jewelry Designs" pg. 130 by Nancy Schiffer.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"SCOTLAND", castle mark, elk head (or wreath), "U" (in script), "T" (with a fat period)  I have Scotland printed on this piece ...the castle that was discussed before, an elkhead or maybe it is a wreath, a clear U(in script) and a fat T with a fat period, which is placed separately.Obviously, I lack a good silver book on this Saturday evening.

submitted by Sande
Scottish jewelry with a "925" mark only( There is a company called Shipstones which have a group of
shops along the Cornish cost in England that still make this Scottish type silver Jewellery the difference in the old Victorian SCOTTISH JEWELLERY and the more recent designs of to day are quite clear, also they are reproducing
some of the designs but the stones are very flat the silver is thin and they tend to be agate and malachite mixed. If in doubt go with out! The 925 indicates a more recent piece. if you see 925 this tends to make me believe that it is a Taiwan copy, as a lot of Taiwan copies are just marked 925.This applies to quite a lot of repro.

submitted by  Vanessa Paterson.

Thor Selzer

Thor Selzer (b. 1925) is an important Danish modernist who made his name in the 1960s.  His well designed work in silver and gold is widely collected.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Pearl  Shecter

Pearl Shecter received her M.F.A. at Columbia University.  She studied abstract painting at the Hans Hoffman School of Fine Arts, New York and also attended the Chicago Bauhaus School of Moholy-Nagy.  Her interest in jewelry was furthered by studies in enameling and metalsmithing with Adda Husted-Andersen in New York City.  Shecter maintained a studio in New York for many years while also teaching at New York University and directing the art department at the Little Red Schoolhouse High School.

Shecter's jewelry was mainly abstract and constructed, not cast.  She mostly worked with silver and sometimes wire which she wrapped around rough-cut stones or used to create fluid, linear definition around or within her compositions. She made hair combs and ankle bracelets as well as more common jewelry forms. (taken from my book, "Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970")

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Ora Shifriss, Israel

1950s? Israeli enamelist.  I would love to know more!


Submitted by Marbeth Schon

This mark puzzles me: 
I see a similar mark in Bille Hougart's book ( page 22)  but WHO is the maker of this piece?   Note the 4 toward the bottom of the shield ? ? ? I'd sure appreciate some help.  MEXICO is also hand engraved below the hallmark.  ( no
eagle ) style is melon shape pot.  Very Heavy and Fine Silver Workmanship. 

submitted by Sue

  Today I picked up a fabulous necklace very similar to Antonio Pineda's  work.It's signed Fidencio Serrano or Serranoe.  Is anyone familiar  with this designer?  It is marked with the TS-09 mark, but with the maker and 950 or  960.  No eagle mark, so probably a transitional piece.

submitted by Sharon


"Sterling, Secrest" just picked up a pin, very Danish modern looking, with a gorgeous Persian turquoise cab. It is marked simply "Sterling, Secrest". 

submitted by Nora

Shooting Star mark Looking for info on 14K gold ring made in the 30's with a shooting star mark in the inside of the band.  I purchased the ring recently in an antique store in San Antonio.

Does anyone know who the maker would be?

submited by Sherry Korzekwa
Vincent Simon


Vincent Simon was or is a jeweler who worked in New York in the 1970s.  He made excellent copies of Victorian cufflinks and probably other types of jewelry.

information provided by Martha Trachtenberg

H. Fred Skaggs
H. Fred Skaggs is the epitome of the 'accidental Modernist'. In 1956, Skaggs moved to Scottsdale, Arizona and opened a shop in the Lloyd Kiva Craft Center. He thought he was simply making his jewelry but he inspired an entire generation of celebrated and highly collectible silver artists. Christie Romero's 3rd edition of 'Warman's Jewelry' hails Skaggs as a 'Mid Century Modern Master' and touts Skaggs' influence on Charles Loloma, THE famed Native American silversmith. Loloma credits Fred 'for inspiring him and teaching him to make jewelry'. Skaggs died in 1982 and his widow kept his shop open until just recently when the area became too touristy to do proper honor to the past.

Taken from

"Smed, sterling" I picked up a piece of silver today, heavy, well-made, depicting a fox in a grape arbour. The mark on the back is sterling and what appears to be Smed.

I have seen a piece by Peer Smed, but it has the full names in a script similar to that used by Evald Nielsen. Can anyone confirm for me whether there were alternate signatures for Peer Smed or if, in fact, this is by a completely different maker? 

submitted by Evelyn Yallen

Art Smith

Art Smith (1917-1982) was a New York silversmith who's African American heritage influenced his sculptural jewelry forms.  More than any other modernist jeweler of his day, Art Smith was concerned with ornamenting the human form.  His primitive-inspired, biomorphic constructions can only be truly understood in relation to the body. "A piece of jewelry, he said, "is a whatisit? until you relate it to the body...Like line, form and color, the body is a material to work with. It is one of the basic inspirations in creating form...  Art Smith's work is featured at the Brooklyn Museum in a permanent exhibit and is in the collections of many major museums and collections.

 His work is featured in both of my books, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.  See also:


information provided by Marbeth Schon


"Noble Smith"


Today I looked in a case at a shop and saw what I anticipated to be an Ed Weiner bracelet. Great design and quality. I was surprised to find it was instead marked STERLING NOBLE SMITH. I am wondering if any of you have come across this name in silver and if you have any info on this designer.

submitted by Ellen S  

Noble Smith was the pen name of Shirley Smith, an extremely talented silversmith who graduated from high school in 1946 and then attended the Boston Museum School in the early 1950s.  The design quality of her work is equal to that of some of the more well known and well respected artist/jewelers of the mid 20th century.

Information provided by Marbeth Schon




(Example is a chunky sterling necklace with a huge piece of amethyst in the pendant. It's signed SMYKKESMEDEN, and Danmark)

submitted by Jackie Weeks

The name of the company/maker "Smykkesmeden" means "the jeweler". Smykker = jewelry (pl) Smeden = the smith.

information provided by Anette Floystrup

This piece I am fairly sure is NOT sterling, but probably plate, though I am sure the amethyst is natural. Reminds me a lot of the Jacob Hull stuff for B & D (forget what that stands for :) which was also plate. There is a reason that these makers didn't use silver at that time besides the obvious cost issue. There was a movement away from the use of all 'precious' metals in certain artistic/design circles in the 60s and 70s. It's at the same time that you see so much jewelry made from lucite, pewter, brass, bronze, and other low intrinsic value materials. They were reiterating the Arts and Crafts movement ideal of creating jewelry with good design value that was affordable to everyone.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

Clement Berg

"925" and crossed hammers over an eagle



I just acquired a beautiful old "solje" brooch with green enamel on silver and lovely delicate wire work. It is marked "925" and a mark which I've not been able to find anywhere which looks like crossed hammers over an eagle. I think it's Norwegian, but doesn't have the "S" after the "925" mark.

submitted by Marbeth Schon

Yours would be called a bysølje and it could be Danish. It will be a bit hard to tell age till you track down the maker.

information provided by Pat Talbot

You'll never believe that I also recently bought a similiar pin, and don't know it's origin.My pin has a "C" clasp, and definitely is old. Not a tourist piece. I have been searching for its origin as well.

information provided by Joan Gruzen

As a native born Dane who spends one or two months a year in Denmark now, I can assure you that I have nowhere ever seen anything like the pieces which we have been shown. They are sweet, but they are absolutely not Danish.

Danes have, by the way, never used filigree work as folk-costume jewelry. Indeed, I am quite unaware of any specific jewelry being a part of any Danish regional folk-costume (there are many), the Danes seem to have expressed their regional differences in various lace making techniques and colored and patterned woven cloth. The Museum in my home town of Kolding ( "click" on the British flag for English) has a superb collection of laces as well as their ever growing and spectacular collection of Danish silver (emphsis on 20 century makers).

information provided by Annette

Must agree with Annette: This piece is probably not regular Scandinavian sølje as we know it (a Swede speaking here; with own "sølje" for her area of birth folk costume). In my most humble opinion, this piece appears more Irish or Scottish to me but I could be wrong, of course. It appears "too busy" to be German, in a general design sense, methinks. The green enameling on the stylized "cross" speaks of either Tudor cross influences or an Irish style cross. The green color also supports these guesses. Moorish influence (Ireland) is seen in the scroll work, appendici.

The mark, hammers over an eagle, is unknown to me. It could represent a city (town) called Eaglehammer, f.ex. It looks more like a city/county mark hallmark than a maker's mark. It is possible that this hallmark appears in some reference work or another. I checked the British hallmarks but didn't spot this one.

This piece reminds me of newer styles of imitation folk jewelry seen in local crafts shops in various countries in Europe, not exactly a classic design but reminiscent or inspired by various folk jewelry designs over the years and executed by local craftsmen, and usually destined for the tourist industry.

Again, I have no factual proof of any of the above but am willing to wager that it is not Scandinavian, thus not socalled sølje.

Re "goldwash" sølje: Much Swedish folk costume jewelry "folkdräktssmycken" in Swedish) has no goldwash at all, it's plain silver.

information provided by Liz Bryman

If you have "Warman's Jewelry, 2nd ed. by our own Christie Romero, 2nd ed., pg. 252, shows some pieces by Marius Hammer. The brooch (not pictured in color) is in kelly green enamel, so at least there's an example of the Norwegians using that bright green enamel which is the color of both Joan's and my pieces. I realize that my brooch is more in a folk jewelry style than the Art Nouveau style of the Marius Hammer pieces, but it's a possibility that other jewelers were making similar pieces but working in a less formal style. Just a guess.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

I've seen quite a few Marius Hammer pieces (a friend collects it). The pieces were mostly blue and green, with lots of "dangles" and "coiled" wire pieces. I have a piece whose enamel color is powder blue. The color of your pieces did not seem wrong (to my untrained eye).

information provided by Ramona Tung

I have also seen a number of Marius Hammer pieces belonging to one collector. and I concur with her that there is a striking similarity in the work. The two pieces in my book are mine, but I own them because I was introduced to Hammer's work by our collector friend!

However, there remains the mystery of the mark, which is not Hammer's. So Marbeth may be correct in thinking that there were others working concurrently in a similar style, in Norway, or elsewhere. Regarding the mark, it appears to be the same "mystery mark" as the one on a piece I have, which is in a very different style - a hammered silver flowerhead brooch with a small amazonite cab in the center - quite Arts & Crafts looking. So I do hope we find out whose mark this is!

information provided by Christie Romero

As for the brooch I know the D. Andersen made this type of enamel "solje" brooch as well as M. Hammer. I am at presant in contact with the essay office in Norway so hopefully sometime next week i may be able to shed some light on this mark

information provided by Vnessa Paterson

This is the mark for Clement Berg of Norway who worked in Oslo in the first part of the 20th century.

information provided by Jay and by Eli Ulriksen

925S and tankard mark Anyone have any ideas about the marks on this bracelet? This bracelet reminds  me a lot of the work of the dane Karl Gustav Hansen in the deco/Functionalism  style of the 30s. My picture is not the best, but this is a graceful  hollow-band cuff with hollow spheres at either side of the upwards-facing  opening. The picture of the marks is pretty clear. There's an additional mark  to the left of the '925S' mark that has me completely stumped! (Kinda looks  like one of the characters of the German alphabet, but I don't remember my  one summer semester of that language very well.)

It's been proposed to me by a friend that jewelry items with the '925S' mark  but without a country designation must be from Denmark as the other  Scandinavian countries ie Norway, Sweden, Finland all have very strict laws  regarding the inclusion of the country among the marks. This rings somewhat  true as I've seen examples of Danish work without the mark "Denmark".  However, I'm sure I've seen pieces from Finland that didn't have any marks at  all ie matching pieces to marked items. Lastly, I've seen pieces from  Iceland, and they use the '925S' mark also, but some of them didn't have the  country mark. Makes sense as I seem to remember that that country used to be  a colony of Denmark.
submitted by Patrick Kapty

I don't know the mark on the right but i've had several pieces with that little "tankard" style mark that were also marked NORWAY. 

information provided by Susan

This little tankard mark appears on all Tostrup silver including stuff made by Greta Prtyz Kitellsen too.....I note that  Norweigan silver is rarely date marked , but that they used to use  weird zodiac signs as date marks during the 19th century...a variant  on a date mark... ? or is the little tankard thingy the equivilant  maybe of a city mark for Oslo or something....or something to do with  Tostrup..... ? odd how it doesn't appear on all Norweigan  things...not on Anna Greta Ecker's...or Tone Vigeland.......

information provided by Vanessa Frisbee

"Solis" A friend of mine found this pair of earrings today and asked for more info on them. I have looked in my Mexican Silver book by Morrill and Berk and am finding confusing info. I found nothing on Solis, but the Plateria sounds like it is the mexican name for taller. Is this correct? If so, is the Solis
mean Plateria Solis like Plateria Anita or ? 

submitted by Holli
"Spencer Co." stylized "S", STERLING" I have two charms (one is still on its card --with a really faded, but still-visible, price of $7.50) from the Spencer Co. -- written that way, as an abbreviation.

The mark (I will take and submit a pic later) is a stylized "S" that is kind of reminiscent of two intersecting boomerangs -- if you can get that image in your minds' eyes. Both charms are similar, in that they employ raised, sculpted, "pictures" and colored stones. Under the "S" is stamped STERLING in block capital letters.

submitted by Rosalie

There is an E. L. Spencer Company of Providence RI listed in Rainwater's American Jewelry Manufacturers. It's a pretty lengthy listing (p. 224 for those of you who have this invaluable book). It says the company made charms, among other things, but the mark you describe is not shown here. The lastfor this company was 1922.
information provided by Christie Romero

This charm could have been part of a promotion where they took higher priced items and mixed them with lower priced items and then averaged them off. Spencer which was located in the Providence/ Cranston RI area closed in the late 70's or early 80's. They were not affilated with Spencer Gifts but they did supply them with product. That charm looks to me like a it is made with a stamped background, probably vermeil. The 3-d part is casted and is sterling. Stones are most likely
Austrian Crystal.

information provided by Paul DeFruscio


SPRATLING (fake brooch with computer generated mark)



I must admit, I've been had! I didn't do my homework, didn't check Phyllis Goddard's Spratling Silver site for fake Spratling hallmarks and purchased a Spratling piece with computer generated marks.

The piece is so charming. It's the parrot with amethyst on page 44 of the original Mexican Silver book by Berk and Morrill. I guess I thought no one would take the time to make a forgery of that piece--seems too complicated, but if you look at art history, it was heady stuff to fake a masterpiece.

I hope no one else will be fooled as I was. When I looked carefully at the picture in the book and my other pieces of Spratling from the 1940s, I noticed that the pieces were rounder, heavier, and the incised lines were much deeper and cruder than on my piece.

The giveaway should have been the marks on the piece which are very clear and clean and have a pebbly background. Also the '"WS" in the circle is slightly different from the one that should be there. "The style of the particular conjoined WS on the item was never used inside the "Spratling made in Mexico" circle. That WS is adapted from a photograph of an early and rare mark in Penny Morrill's book. The "Spratling Silver" mark cannot be authentic. Each letter in the authentic Spratling Silver mark was individually punched. These letters are absolutely perfect and the background is "pebbly" and uniform" (this is from Bille Hougart who wrote "The Little Book of Mexican Trade and Hallmarks"). I am very grateful to him for helping me out with this. You will also find information and pictures of the fake marks at Phyllis's site

submitted by Marbeth Schon

 I have not personally seen other examples of this pin with the non authentic marks as on yours. However, I have seen more intricate Spratling items and less sophisticated items bearing these same marks. I have been told that these specific marks surfaced on the east coast several years before the Dan Ripley auction in September 1998. The publicity surrounding the removal of these items (and, as well, items by Hector Aguilar and Fred Davis) was the first general acknowledgement that I know of concerning the increasing numbers of non authentic marks. You can find actual pictures of the items and the hallmarks on them that were withdrawn (after vetting) at Dan's website in the Archives section. The auction material to look for was September 1998, Mexican Silver.

We all know intellectually that correct marks can easily be reproduced these days. And when each of us finds a "treasure," I think it is human nature to want it to be genuine, so we subconsciously look for things to substantiate our hope. It is so important to think about when an item was supposedly made. For instance, genuine Spratling items have not been made for 35 years, and his highest levels of production (1940 - 1945) means that much of what we find may be 60 years old. Does the item look like it was made with the construction methods and tools of that time period. (Many of the imposters we see now actually do have similar construction features, but often small details will give it away.) Does the item have a patina that represents many years of usage, polishing and exposure to air? Is there genuine tarnish in the cracks and crevices of the item, or, instead, has someone put a black wash (fake tarnish) on a the tarnish only in those places we normally can't polish or, if the item was recently buffed, where a buffing wheel can't reach? Hallmarks are only one tool that we need to look at, and I do think that very few dealers ever deliberately try to deceive their customers. There is no way we can expect dealers to be absolutely current and "the most knowledgeable" about each of the many items they offer for sale. Each of us as buyers must assume some responsibility for knowing something about which we are planning to spend - sometimes sizable -amounts of money.

The more each of us knows and is willing to share that knowledge, we will all be better protected against such deceptions. There are so many "good" pieces available! We just sometimes need to be reminded to put into our good sense into practice as our "head" tells us to do, rather than our "heart."

information provided by Phyllis Goddard

Also see


Spratling mark on tin

William Spratling

William Spratling (1900-1967) has been called by many 'a Renaissance Man.' Throughout Mexico he is acknowledged as "The Father of Mexican Silver." Certainly the town of Taxco and its economy would be vastly different without the initiative and creativity of this man. He complemented its valuable historic past with a new vitality and spirit which recognized the importance of the indigenous culture. The artistic and economic foundation he established continues to flourish today."  (This is taken from a biography of William Spratling by Phyllis Goddard.  Please see the whole biography at

Also read:

Information can be found in Mexican Silver by Carole Berk and Penny Morrill, Silver Masters of Mexico, by Penny Morrill and William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance.  His work was included in the traveling exhibit, William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance.

You can order Mexican Silver, $59.95 (item #SMB001) or Silver Masters of Mexico, $49.95 (item #SMB002) from MODERN SILVER magazine books  Please add $3.95 for shipping for each book. 

Steampunk Jewelry
This is my take on Steampunk Jewelry.

Focus is on use of Victorian filigree like settings with mechanical components
of machines (pre-electronic). GEARS are a major design focus. Steampunkers
love things made out of WATCH GEARS from old pocket and manual wind wrist
watches. I have been selling old watch components to folks who make Steampunk
jewelry. If you do a search on eBay on watch movements you will see large lots
of watch movements being bought by steampunkers.

In my opinion, the most unique Steampunk jewelry is using older sterling
filigree pieces when incorporating the mechanical parts. Steampunkers are also
looking for these types of sterling pieces rather than having to buy newly
manufactured silver-tone findings.

Steampunk is a BIG hit with the following groups of people:

Victorian Gothic crowd

Science Fiction/Fantasy crowd

Hope this was helpful,

information provided by Chris Melendez
Erne Stener


(Example is a necklace signed Erne Stener)

submitted by Judy in CA

Henry Steig

Henry Steig (1906-1973) had a shop in New York in the 1950s-1960s. Jazz had a significant influence on his work--Steig was a musician who played saxophone and clarinet with dance bands in New York during the 1920s-30s.  He studied art at the National Academy of Design, but was mostly a self-taught metalsmith. His jewelry designs are modern and sophisticated, evidencing his training in design and sculpture.

His work is featured in both of my books, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.

Information provided by Marbeth Schon

"W. Strasser custom made 1990"


I'm hoping someone will have some info on this contemporary artist/jeweler. The brooch is made of silver, copper and brass, with nine round bezel-set carnelian cabochons. It's marked "W. Strasser custom made 1990" and titled "Dreamer". It's very well made, and whimsical in theme - the person is dreaming of travel, success, sleep, sex, and a chicken.

submitted by Patrick Kapty


I recently purchased a pair of 4 light candelabras that were sold to me as Georg Jensen, however his name is not on them. They are marked Sv.T. Denmark Sterling 925 s. The style looks like Jensen. I would appreciate any info on Sv.T.

Swan mark

The Swan mark you are showing is not very clear,
but it appears to be a French mark used on watch cases
and other small boxes, 1893-1969. It has an oval frame
but the shape of the swan (curvature of the neck) varies
slightly. This mark was used on foreign silver imports and other products which were of unknown foreign origin and provided the casing for French products. The silver fineness also varied. Your case looks beautiful and hand tooled and though I need to examine it to be certain, I believe it to be Armenian, most likely originating from Persia or Turkey, but such works also came from Eastern Europe and were even made in France in early 1900s which carry the French

Swedish mark with triple crown mark  for local (VS imports) sale, S for sterling, G9 for 1957 and "P" I might as well kick it off with a question about a lovely sterling silver brooch in my possession. I do know that it is a Swedish piece. It has leaves w/a single pinecone, and has the following hallmarks: the triple crown mark for local (VS imports) sale, S for sterling, G9 for 1957(?), but I haven't 
figured out who would've produced it. There is a letter P at the beginning of the series. There also may have been another letter preceding the P, but it is illegible at this point.

submitted by Mary

There were at least two designers working during the 
period your piece was made using "P" as part of their mark. There is the mark for K.E. Palmberg who designed for Alton and used both "KP" and "K.E. Palmberg" (in script) 

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"the silversmith" (Example is a pair of  small heavy screwback earrings. Very simple ovals with oxidation on one half of each side of the earring. . One earring is marked sterling on the back of the silver oval disc and on the other it's marked all in lower case letters "the silversmith".

submitted by Jackie Weeks

In the Mystery Marks forum, Jackie Weeks asked about a mark "the silversmith" . That mark I believe is from a jewelry manufacturer and shop in Greenwich Village NY on W.4th st. from around 1956 to the present. I worked there in 1958.

information provided by Ken Darling

"H T" (D.F. 925)

(this is a Mexican mark)


This appears to be a conjoined block letter "H" and "T." The other earring shows that it is clearly an "H." It looks more like a backwards chair here, but, in general, this mark is clearer, so I used this one to show you. The upper left vertical segment of the "H" is just worn.
You can see that it is the District Federale and not Taxco, so it may be a much more obsure artisan. By the way, the 925 is placed carefully along the right leg of the "H," so that it nestles very neatly under the umbrella of the "T." It is the same on both earrings, clearly
meant to be part of the mark, as opposed to merely a random stamping of the silver content. The earrings are extremely well made married metals hemispheres -- with a brass bull's eye in the center of the silver circle. Here's the image:

submitted by Rosalie Isaacs

"T" (with wings) (Examples are Arts & Crafts sterling handwrought items, including jewelry with  the hallmark of a T with wings on either side.)

submitted by Ramona Tung

he winged T hallmark belongs to the Gaylord SIlvercraft Shop of Wallingford, CT. it was in > operation from about 1925 to 1944. Pieces were made at the Gaylod Sanatorium, where silver was made to > keep patients busy. A total of 481 patients made > silver, and about 30,000 items were produced at the shop in the 19-year span. To find more specific information, including a list of what Gaylord Shop made and in what quantity, use the following link:

information provided by Paul Lemieux


A while back, a question arose about modernist jewelry with the mark "T2". Someone suggested this may be another mark for Ed Wiener. I would like further information on this mark if anyone knows. I've handled 3 pieces of jewelry, all small items. Two pair earrings - one a la wiener - the other stylistically a little different. Also, a pair of very cool cufflinks w/ fish a la wiener - these where marked "T2" and also ..."LALL CONE". Could "T2" be a Shop Mark where these modernist may have sold their jewelry?

submitted by Nancy Hunt

Regarding T-2, I've seen the mark on findings of jewelry which were obscure and unsigned as well as on findings of pieces by Ed Wiener. I've always thought that it was the mark of a findings company that was used by many during the '50s, but I may be wrong.I have a wonderful pair of studio cufflinks with an abstract fish design marked: "-LLAL CONE". They look very much like the work of the mid-century modernist jewelers and the cufflink bars are marked "STERLING, T-2" Every time I have seen this mark it has been on the part of the jewelry that is probably manufactured by another company and used by the jeweler.

submitted by Marbeth Schon

The big question is about some pieces by Ed Wiener. I have some that are marked with his name and the earrings to match are marked Sterling T2. I also have a set that is only marked T2 sterling and no name. This set is the
open star as pictured on page 255 in the Silver Jewelry Designs by Nancy Schiffer. I would appreciate any info on this mark.

 submitted by Lonny

Talleres Monasticos

"Talleres Monasticos is the workshop of the Benedictine monks of Cuernavaca.  The workshop was described as producting some exceptionally interesting semi-abstract liturgical artswork." (From Mexican Silver Trade and Hallmarks by Bille Hougart, p. 195)

3 piece floral set, it looks like TeKs inside a triangle? Scandinavian??

submitted by Eva Kryzanek

It is a German company called Teka. They made some nice pieces; just go to Google and look 'em up. I can't remember any details at the moment.

information provided by Martha Trachtenberg
Tilo (Taxco)  Does anyone know about a Taxco silversmith named Tilo?  I found one online reference to him having worked with/for Spratling, but I'm reluctant to make that kind of claim based on a single
reference (the mark is on a bracelet I'm planning to sell).

submitted by Martha T.
double crossed "T" over a squared "C" in a rectangular cartouche.

(mark for Thomae Co.)


I was looking through my "Rainwater" books this morning for marks and came across the mark Jackie Weeks sent in an email more than a week ago. It was a double crossed "T" (looks like an old-fashioned telephone pole) over a squared "C" in a rectangular cartouche. The mark is for The Thomae Co., Atelboro Massachusetts, in business from 1920----. The book "American Jewelry Manufacturers" by Rainwater shows only a similar "T C" mark (not in a rectangle and with and rounded "C"). If you look in Rainwater's other book "Encyclopedia of American Silver Manufacturers" you will see the mark exactly as Jackie drew it with the rectangle and the square "C". I think it's useful to have both books on hand. The "Encyclopedia of American Silver Manufacturers" has a nice section at the back with pictures of marks which is very helpful if you don't have a letter of the alphabet to go by.

information provided by Marbeth Schon
Gunn Trigere I just wanted to know a little more about Gunn Trigere.  I know she's from Stockholm, studied at the Sorbonne and ended up on Rodeo Drive.  Ok, so now, when did she start producing? Has she always worked with silver? Has she done anything in gold? I have two pins in 14 kt that almost look like her work and they are simply signed  TRIGERE, just as it is typed.

submitted by Heidi

Smiling TePee mark Hi Everyone, I picked up what I think is just a super piece....  :)    First any ideas on the age or maker...great symbols through out...whirling logs, arrows and a mark that looks like a Smilin' TeePee?  I feel it is an earlier piece.  Any thoughts?  What type of stone do you think Turquoise?  

submitted by Roger

"T & P"


(Example is a s SS filigree lorgnette with SS chain having colette set paste rounds, I would guess c. 1890 to 1910, signed T & P.

submitted by Elaine Kula


(Example is a pin that appears to be marked TR-97)

submitted by Terri

Penny Morrill in her book "Mexican Silver" gives the clearest explanation of the current Mexican hallmarks. Penny says..."Today each silversmith is given a mark which consists of a series of letters and numbers. The first letter refers to the city or town, "T" for Taxco," "M" for Mexico city. The next letter is the initial of the first or last name of the silversmith and the number designates the position of the silversmith on the list under that particular letter.." As Penny explains, the maker of your pin is from Taxco and his/her name begins with an "R." He/she was the 97th person to register in Taxco for the letter "R."

Information provided by Phyllis Goddard

As an addendum to Phyllis' quote from Penny's book, this form of registry mark has been in use since circa 1979, so the mark also gives a clue to the piece's age - no more than about 20 years.

information provided by  Christie Romero

"T" and overlapping "S"


(Example is Danish A&C period with turquoise. It is marked 585 with a T and overlapping S. I recently purchased the Jacob Thage/Danish jewelry book which lists Tabita Swenn as a jeweler during the A&C period.  pic     pic)

submitted by Beth Scott

"AKT",Heart with crown,"585-XX-R7" ( Example is a Finnish 14K gold ring with a very sculptural surface. Date mark is for 1970.   --two different views)

submitted by Pam Biallas

"AKT" is the mark for Tammen Koru Ky of Turku, Finland. AKA Tammen Koru Oy. Apparently the mark is the owner/artist/designer's name Alpo Tammi, not sure what the middle initial is. This person has been around since the mid-50s, and worked in Turku, Helsinki, and Joensuu over the years, and was still in business in 1988.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

"Taki 975" (Example is a collar, gold over 975 silver. It is entirely handmade. It is signed Taki and 975 on a raised plaque.)

Susan Williams

I found this site with a search.
Taki might be this Turkish artist.

information provided by Sue Sinclair in FL

"12TAR" (Example was a Deco sterling bracelet with blue enameling. The mark is 800 in an oval, and the other mark is 12TAR. Or maybe it's ZAR.)

submitted by Ellen Solway



To begin with, I would greatly appreciate it if someone, or many, can help me to identify a new acquisition. It is quite heavy and large....magnificently made. The stones appear to be genuine (citrine and moonstone). It is marked Sterling and has a signature....which I cannot discern. That signature appears to be either THEDREA, THEOREA, The Orea or The Drea. I am submitting urls of the front and back. I would be thrilled to learn the age, the country of origin and who the artist was. 

submitted by Cris Fleisher

'THUNE, 925S" has Anyone ever heard of a Silversmith and I believe it is Scandinavian...Looks Like Thume?? 925S 

submitted by Roger

I thought we had a request for this maker at another time, but couldn't find  it on the mystery marks page or in previous emails. I wish I could tell  you something other than I'm pretty sure it's Danish and certainly looks Arts  & Crafts. None of my resources lists "Thune" or Guldsmed Chr. Delphin  Elverum. It appears to say "-???----- your country" so must be historical  and/or patriotic in nature. I love the shield around the piece. I can't  read the word "Vaerg"--maybe someone else can help.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Thune is a company in Oslo Norway,they first registered the T in a sheild in 1962.later in 1966 they registered a T in a sheid with a crown above it,thee also is another mark registered for Thune which is a script of nmt which is for N.M.THUNE A/S OSLO.

Thune is a smaller company than David Andersen but had similar ideas as to working with enamels the company is still current today.

 information provided by Vanessa Paterson.

Bill Tendler

Bill Tendler was an American modernist jeweler who hand made pieces in his studio/shop in New York's Greenwich Village from 1952-1981. More information and photographs of his work are found in my book  Modernist Jewelry 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement, pages 82,83.

information provided by Marbeth Schon
Harold Tishler
Made enameled jewelry on copper, typically of animals and some other natural themes. I believe he worked in Florida in the 50s and 60s. 

submitted by Chris



 I came across an interesting silver piece today and it is marked Tobler. I know I have heard of this maker before but I can't locate it in any of my books.

submitted by Cathy
Charles Tomae & Son You have been deceived as the makers wanted you to be. These are PSEUDO  hallmarks. The crown, Old English T and lion are actually an American maker's  mark, Charles Tomae & Son, Inc. of Attleboro MA, established in 1920. See  Dorothy Rainwater's American Jewelry Manufacturers, page 236.

American silver mfrs. sometimes used marks that looked like British hallmarks  because they wanted buyers to make the association with British sterling and  its reputation for quality. Gorham Mfg. Co. and Watson, Newell & Co. are two  more examples.

information provided by Christie Romero
Tono, AC, STERLING, TAXCO, 925, HECHO EN MEXICO, PIEDRA NEGRA" (Example is a piece marked Tono (accent on the n) in script and the initials AC inside a circle marked Hecho en Mexico Sterling Taxco 925. It also has "Piedra Negra" and the production mark T126. Does anyone know whether this AC piece may be the early work of Antonio Castillo?) 

submitted by Evelyn Yallen

(Example is a pin --very well made, onyx in silver with inlaid brass and silver with hanging pendants of alternating onyx and turquoise. Also marked: "STERLING, TAXCO, 925, HECHO EN MEXICO, PIEDRA NEGRA, T119". )

submitted by Marbeth Schon

I can not say this for certain, but I believe the Tono signature with the ~ above the "n" and "AC" was for Antonio (called Tono) Castillo.

information provided by Nancy Hunt

Although I can't say "for sure," I will say "extremely likely" that this is Antonio Castillo. Los Castillo was one of the few talleres in Taxco to stamp the names of their techniques on their pieces. "Piedra Negra" (black stone) refers to the inlay work that Los Castillo was famous for. The look of the piece also says Los Castillo to me.

information provided by Christie Romero

I just got off the phone with Don Antonio Castillo. He is in good health, and still working on his new designs. Still an artist, after more than 60 years!......We discussed his use of the AC mark, and he states that he only used this for a few pieces, that were in the center of his mark "Cobre Artistico". It is also marked "Los Castillo". I have this mark on a pair of his vintage copper angel candelabra. He states that he has never used the mark "Tono", with or without the tilde! So, the "AC" "Tono" is NOT Los Castillo.

information provided by Sheila Pamfiloff

I have also seen a necklace with the Tono and AC hallmarks but with an additional assay mark of TC-55. While we know one of Antonio Castillo's assigned assay marks was TC-45, someone somewhere knows who was assigned TC-55 and when they finally come clean then this mystery will be solved once and for all. Is there a list anywhere
of the identified TC marks?

 information provided by Bob

"CJ" or "GJ" with a crown (or W) on top of the C/G letter, "TORE" with what looks like a peacepipe or a hammer,  "925" Does anyone recognize the hallmark on this choker necklace? It looks like CJ or GJ with a crown on top of the C/G letter or maybe it's a W instead of a crown.....WCJ/WGJ (?) and the letters TORE with what looks like a peacepipe or a hammer? Assay mark is 925 only.

J. Tostrup is a Norwegian firm founded in 1932.  They created hollowware and jewelry and are well known for beautiful enameled jewelry and some extraordinary modern designs by Grete Prytz Kittlesen.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"J. TOSTRUP, GE" have a J.Tostrup machine age pin which is also marked with the initials GE. I realize that Gertrud Engel worked in Denmark but is it possible that she was part of the Tostrup workshop in Norway??

 Ellen from Santa Cruz 

Towle  (Early mark)

Towle Silversmiths was incorporated in 1902. They manufactured both sterling and plated silverware.  In the 1950s and 1960s they created enamelware designed by Earl Pardon and other mid 20th century modernist designers.

information provided by Marbeth Schon


"Tuttle Sterling"


(Example is of a modern design sterling silver pin with a "mushroom spore" texture)

submitted by Ellen Solway

There is a firm - I believe based in Boston - called Tuttle Silversmiths, and while they are better known for their sterling flatware and hollowware, I belive they have also been producing sterling jewellery in recent years. Their flatware has a unique date marking system - there is a mark on pieces with the initials of the US president in office at the time the piece was produced (this started with Calvin Coolidge - 
CC ). Is the piece only marked Tuttle sterling or are there other marks with it?

submitted by Fiona Kenny

"THU" (or IHU) Danish designer, also marked: "handmade"

submitted by Patrick Kapty

"Tria juncta in uno" I was looking through the net and came across a query by "Paul" and "Jane,  Viney Ridge" about a gold stickpin with an unknown emblem on it which  featured the motto "Tria juncta in uno" with various other elements  including three crowns. This is the emblem of the "Order of the Bath", the
 second highest order of chivalry in Britain. The three crowns represent the  three kingdoms, England, Scotland and Ireland that make up the United  Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The motto means "three
 joined  as one". I therefore suspect that the stickpin belonged to someone who was  a
 member of the order. There aren't that many so the Chancellery of the Order  should be able to tell you who the members were when the pin was made.

 I hope this helps,

information provided by Graham Bartram

I am hoping someone out there can identify maker of brooch and earrings - they are quite large and Denmark has been struck twice , also reads sterling - the maker
looked like Casper ?

submitted by Yvette Searle

I think it says Truart, that was a line made by the Hingeco Vanities
company. Perhaps the Casper/Casperi was a designer or a special order?
Danish work would have required several identifying hallmarks which
these pieces do not have.

information provided by Tracy

Hingeco Vanities, Inc., Providence, Rhode Island was a manufacturer of jewelry, compacts and vanities. It includes the TRUART line of vanity items. TRUART was the trademark adopted by this company. The Company began during the late 1930s and was out of business by the early 1950s.

The company produced a fair amount of Patriotic U.S. WW2 Military Sweetheart Jewelry. These pieces are not only fun and sometimes unusual, but are also sentimental and patriotic. They are found in silver plate, sterling silver, gold plate, gold filled, and occasionally solid gold. Many wooden, plastic, celluloid and non precious metal pieces were used with conservation of precious metals for the war effort in mind.

(from: "American Jewelry Manufacturers" by Dorothy T. Rainwater).

Yumi Ueno


For a great article about Yumi Uneo, please read "Yumi Uneo, Jewelry Artist" by Patrick Kapty, MODERN SILVER magazine, June - July, 2002.


Unger Brothers


Unger Brothers was founded by five brothers in Newark, New Jersey for the manufacture and sale of pocket knives and hardware specialties.  In 1878, they began to manufacture silver jewelry.  Three of the brothers died and the remaining two, Herman and Eugene continued under the name Unger Brothers.  Eugene Unger married Emma Dickinson, daughter of Philemon Dickinson in 1880.  It was Dickinson who designed the Art Nouveau articles that are the signature pieces for collectors of Unger Brothers wares.  After 1909, when the last brother died, they no longer used the Art Nouveau patterns, beginning to create a more rectilinear line. They ceased production of silver articles in 1914 and in 1919, the business was sold. (from the "Encyclopedia of American Silver Manufactures" by Dorothy T. Rainwater.)


Rey Urban

I have a wonderful mod pin signed in script Ray Urban, then in block
letters, A.FAUSING 925 STERLING DENMARK. Can anyone share info with me on
this designer?

submitted by Ellen

Rey Urban studied at the Swedish Royal College of Arts, Crafts and Design in the1950s. He was awarded was awarded his master certificate as a silversmith in 1955, and his work has been shown in exhibitions in Sweden, Denmark and other countries.  Urban's pieces are beautifully designed, miniature sculptures to wear.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Johanna Van Ryn


While I was doing research for CJ in a 1946 Vogue magazine, I came across an ad for a Johanna Van Ryn. The ad states that her jewels were handwrought in sterling~often with semiprecious stones. It is a full page ad and shows a set called "Twilight" [shown actual size] with amethyst quartz--Necklace sold for 48.00, bracelet 33.00, earrings 8.40--belt not shown was 72.00--[a lot of money in 1946]! The ad was from A. J. Van Dugteren & sons, Inc. NY, NY. Is anyone familiar with her work? If there is an interest,

submitted by Pat Seal

I have been researching various signed silver jewelry pieces I have with the intention of selling or swapping for vintage silver buttons. After about 6 months now I have been unable to find any information about a bracelet I have. It is signed Silver, Mexico and Johanna Von Ryn or Van Ryn. Any help on time period, collectible value, who this person is would be appreciated. 

submitted by Debra

Bille Hougart, in his book "The Little Book of Mexican Silver Trade and Hallmarks," lists this company as being active in Mexico from the 1940s. I imagine they were a U.S. company that made pieces in Mexico as well.

Maybe someone else is more knowledgeable on this subject.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Ana Maria Nunez de Brilanti


Victoria was the name of the silver shop of Ana Maria Nunez de Brilanti., founded in 1940. She worked in silver, copper, and mixed metals. Her designs are distinctive and beautifully created.  She designed a necklace for First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt who admired the piece so much that she had Ana copy it for her friends.

Information can be found in Mexican Silver by Carole Berk and Penny Morrill, Silver Masters of Mexico, by Penny Morrill and William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance.  Her work was included in the traveling exhibit, William Spratling and the Mexican Silver Renaissance.

You can order Mexican Silver, $59.95 (item #SMB001) or Silver Masters of Mexico, $49.95 (item #SMB002) from MODERN SILVER magazine books  Please add $3.95 for shipping for each book.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Victory bracelet  Does anyone have any information on a piece of victory/sweetheart jewelry that we found in a relative's belongings? This is marked Sterling on each end of the bracelet...says "victory" on one side of a center engraved pair of eagle wings and "America" on the other side. Any
information is appreciated. The bracelet is approximately 1/2" wide and solid sterling silver. Thanks very much.

submitted by Cara Maria

There's a good book on WWII jewelry etc by Nick Snider called "Sweetheart Jewelry and Collectibles", published by Schiffer in 1995. Lots of similar items are pictured in this book, tho I didn't see any cuff bracelets.
I personally LOVE American patriotic stuff, even tho I'm originally from across the northern border, and agree it's especially meaningful now.

information provided by Patrick Kapty

While I haven't contributed much lately I have a suggestion on this one. Years ago I had an open sterling cuff
bracelet. Although I'm a little foggy on the design I knew it was military. Someone bought it from me
& told me this story. When someone graduated from West Point they would take a napkin ring and have
it made into a bracelet for a sweetheart. I think this was during or around the time of WWII.

information provided by Carie Z

"MV-43 925" Bought a yummy feeling Mexican necklace today, along with other goodies.  Don't know who this particular maker might be but it feels wonderful.  Very  nicely made piece.  It is marked MV-43 925 Mex.  I have not seen this mark before and it definetly has the feel of an older piece.  Not new that's for sure. 

submitted by Jackie Weeks
Tone Vigeland (for Plus, Norway)


Ranking among the very top artists of contemporary jewelry making internationally, Tone Vigeland has been a leading artist in her native Norway for almost forty years. Pioneering a movement of goldsmiths working in small private workshops hand making jewelry with an emphasis on the free artistic expression, she started her own workshop in 1961. She was followed by artists such as Gine Sommerfelt in 1964, Toril Bjorg in 1968 and in the seventies by many others.

Upon graduating from the National College of Art and Design (NCAD), Tone Vigeland got an apprenticeship at the metal workshop at PLUS (Fredrikstad, Norway) from 1959 to -61. Tone Vigeland - in the company of Erling Christoffersen, the leader of the workshop, and his wife Anna Greta Eker, were the most prominent designers of PLUS jewelry. It soon got a repetition of being simplistic modern jewelry, combining good form with sensitivity towards the materials used. Tone Vigeland continued designing for PLUS also after she started her own workshop.

In the 60s, Tone Vigeland was very obviously working in the Scandinavian Design tradition. Some of her early works bear witness of a strong influence from the Swedish artist Torun Bülow-Hübe who was working for the Georg Jensen Company in Denmark. Key terms are simple geometric forms, clean surfaces and solutions that are technically straightforward. Silver jewelry was made with stones such as Carnelian, Jade and Amethyst. Long chains and neck rings were made for pendants to be worn in everyday life. Among the most distinct pieces are pairs of sculpturous swirl earrings that cling elegantly to and around the ears.

Through her career Tone Vigeland has been represented in numerous exhibitions and galleries. Amongst her earliest prestigious contributions were jewelry for the Norwegian exibition at the XII Triennale in Milan 1960, and Expo 67, the Montreal World's Fair in Canada.

Tone Vigeland eventually had a great international break through, exhibiting in the London gallery 'Electrum' in 1981. This was followed by exhibitions in New York, Tokyo and other major cities. Her career can be characterized by a capability of continuously renewing artistic creativity, by a dialog among contrasting forms, textures and materials, creating a daring expression. In the 70s and 80s her emphasis moved in the direction of jewelry making as fine art. She would apply e.g. hammered steel nails combined with gold and small silver rings 'knitted' together to almost elastic constructions making enormous necklaces, reminiscent of ritual objects from so called primitive cultures.

(quoted directly from

Alfredo Villasana

Alfredo Villasana pieces are either stamped like the picture to the left of with a conjoined, incised "AV" mark.  Villasana worked for William Spratling and later for Hector Aguilar. 

information provided by Marbeth Schon


"VOO" (Mexican) I found this great mexican set with all the right old marks and signed VOO.
I've looked in the Mexican marks book and VOO is in there, but gives no other
info. Does anyone have any info on this maker? Thanks.

submitted by Donna

Poul Warmind
A few weeks ago, in a jewel lot, I happened upon some inlay earrings marked Warmind Denmark and the W and 5.  I'm assuming this is POUL Warmind. 

However, I note on both Patrick's and Marbeth's sites that their pieces are marked PW.  Any significance in the difference in marks?  A time period?  

submitted by beegee
WAYNE I am asking for help in identifying a charming brooch consisting of two ginko like leafs with simple tendrils and a three silver balls in the center.  The back is marked STERLING HANDWROUGHT WAYNE.  Any help
would be appreciated.  Has anyone heard of the maker WAYNE?

submitted by Fred
"W&B, STERLING SILVER" An oval box, 3 1/5 x 1 2/5 inches (8 x 3.5cms), weight 58.5grams, gilded interior in Adams Revival style, (circa 1900?), narrow white enamel border with rays to a narrow blue enamel oval within which is a feathered central
medallion. The maker is W&B, (sans serifs) and STERLING SILVER, both without

Thanking you, in anticiaption for accepting these enquiries and look forward
to answers.

submitted by Fred Sinfield
"ww" and large "S" below
"3" (inside a "G") and girl's head facing left
Good evening Folks...I have a few questions for you first is this set of demi spoons...weird Mark it is a triangle with a 2 small W 's and the Large letter S might be also a large letter S and 2 small letter M's below it and another hallmark is a oval one with the number 3 inside a Girls head facing left and looks to be wearing a bonnet and the letter W after it...a great set and looks like sterling! Any info would be great!
submitted by Roger Erickson
Bjorn Weckstrom See Mystery Marks I for information about Bjorn Weckstrom (under BJORN)
"W" over an "o"


(Example is a cool pair of silver and amethyst cufflinks.. They have a mark of a W on top of a small O.)

submitted by Ellen from Santa Cruz

"Wehde" I have a wonderful Arts and Crafts pair of salad servers.  They are hand hammered with an applied monogram similar in style to Kalo.  They are marked "Wehde" and "Handwrought Sterling".  Any information would be appreciated.
"Weighted Silver" and "Sterling Silver reinforced with cement" I would very much like to know what do these terms indicate; "Weighted Silver" and "sterling silver reinforced with cement" are engraved at the bottom of a lot of silver candlesticks about 50 years or older. What do these mean?

submitted by Jacob

As far as I know (and candlesticks are not exactly my area) what you are looking at is a very thin sterling silver shell filled with...plaster, cement, Jimmy Hoffa's remains, whatever.  I have watched someone salvage the silver from a half dozen damaged candlesticks (they are not generally repairable) and after a half hour of fussing he didn't have more than a few ounces of silver for his time.   I buy these type pieces out of estates and yard sales for resale at fairly cheap prices and have never seen a really nice piece of silver labeled this

information provided by  Cris Telgard, Tampico Imports

"Weinstabl Moricz Pozsony", along with the hallmark "K.W" and what looks like an octogon in a square.


I am trying to research the following mark and am having very little success. This is on a cigarette case and reads Weinstabl Moricz Pozsony, along with the hallmark K.W and what looks like an octogon in a square.

I know that Pozsony is in the Czech Republic but that's all I've been able to discover. I was told this piece (sorry, don't have photos because the seller is trying to determine a price) is circa 1900, Austrian seccession period.

submitted by Evelyn


 I do not know if this pin (and its matching earings are silver or not. The pin is aboit 1 1/2x2 inches.  What I can read from the stamps on  the back includes 100.  Then in a circlur stamp obscured by the pin  fastened I can read ARTIRON and . . . GUST.  The is a design in the
middle of the circle stamp, perhaps a mountain with 3 connected rings on it along with uneven lines.  Any help would be appreciated.

submitted by Lorraine

Your pin and earrings were probably produced at the WENDELL
AUGUST FORGE.  Most likely, they are aluminum. I am not sure if the company ever produced any items in silver. There is a lot of information available on line. You might want to take a look. 

information provided by Julie Kontor

"Wheeler 93" Please does anyone have any information on the maker of a silver turtle pendant with heart-shaped blue glass center signed "Wheeler93"?
Ed Wiener

Ed Wiener (1918-1991) was one of the most well-loved and respected modernist jewelers of his day. Though almost entirely self-taught, he possessed a magnificent appreciation of form, line, and color together with an amazing ability to uniquely apply the ideas and principles of modernism to his life's work.

His work is featured in every major book on American mid 20th century studio jewelry.  Biographies of Ed Wiener and photographs of his work can be found in both of my books, Modernist Jewelry, 1930-1960, The Wearable Art Movement and Form & Function, American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970 and his work was included in the exhibit "American Modernist Jewelry, 1940 - 1970" at the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, 2008.  Please see MODERN SILVER magazine archives:

information provided by Marbeth Schon

Edward Winter (on enamel)

Edward Winter (1908-1976) is a very important figure in the history and art of enameling in the United States.  He studied at the Cleveland School of Art, graduating in 1931. Later he traveled to Vienna where he studied enameling and metalwork with Josef Hoffmann after which he became committed to enameling as his medium, executing designs in a modernist aesthetic.  Winter won numerous prizes for his beautiful and well-respected enamels and wrote several books on the subject of enameling. 

information provided by Marbeth Schon

World Moulded Metal Co., Ltd.

Hi, it's been a long time since posting an inquiry. I hope that everyone has
been well! I need assistance with this makers mark. Sterling silver "wedding
bracelets"- London city assay, sterling silver hallmark, "K" letter designation-
(1945). Maker mark "WMM Ld". Need help in identifying the maker. Thank you..

 One other thing that confuses me is the 1945 date of these. I thought that
"wedding bracelets" in a matched pair such as there would have been Victorian,
so the date letter sort of surprised me. Any insight?

submitted by Carolyn Sunday

This is the mark of World Moulded Metal Co Ltd who first registered in London in
1945. They are no longer registered.

information provided by John

Carly Wright

"Frank Lloyd Wright (Example was a great pair of abstract cufflinks signed Frank Lloyd Wright.which appeared to be silver.)

submitted by Sharon

"CW"(in script) (Example was a sterling and marcasite heart pin with faux? gems) pic

submitted by Michele Donahue

"G" (within) "W" This mark, which looks like a fancy captal "G" sitting in a plain capital "W," appears on a pair of cool earrings I just got.The initials and the 925 are the only markings -- no country, date, eagle mark, etc They are clip backs,and (of course) the marks are under the clips. They are definitely modern-looking -- a geometrical twistedshape that looks like several strands of spaghetti glued together side by side and doubled back on themselves. My guess is that they are '60s, but it is just a hunch.

submitted by Rosalie Isaacs

"HW" monogram and "900" I just acquired a beautiful hand-wrought sterling and jade cabochon Arts & Crafts brooch which I believeis by by Hugh Wallis; c. 1910-1920; approximately 2-3/4" x 1-1/2"; tube hinge; marked with "HW" monogram and "900".  Does anyone have information on Hugh Wallis and this hallmark?

If you really can't find the owner of the hallmark you could try contacting the London Assay office. the Address is: The Assay Office, Goldsmiths Hall, Gutter Lane, London, EC2V 8AQ. the telephone number: +44 (0)20 7606 8975.
There email address is:

This site is well worth looking at if you want to understand the history of the UK hallmarking system.

information provided by Richard Whitehouse

HW999 (Example is a pendant with a sold back, and the only mark is the HW999 on the bottom edge of the oval (about 1 5/8 inches long without the bale, by the way). I am pretty sure the 999 refers to the purity of the silver. Except I have never seen jewelry made from it (since it would be so easy to damage because of the softness). I have not tried to injure this piece, of course, so I haven't tested my theory. The cameo looks very Victorian, like the profile of the lady on old silver dollars. Any thoughts as to maker, vintage, or even country of origin? )

submitted by Rosalie Isaacs

Your piece was made/manufactured by Henry Winograd. I met this man approximately 10 years ago and he was living in Rego Park, Queens I believe. He may still be alive and was probably in his late 60's at the time. He came from Europe (might be Poland) and he did museum and church restorations of their silver pieces (religious and precious antiques I would guess). I saw photo's of some of his restoration work and it was most impressive.

He began a line of pins, pendants, small boxes,etc. from molds he made from antique pieces and from adaptions. They were made in those days from 999 fine. Later on he used 925 and had a Copyright mark on his pieces as well. They were surprisingly inexpensive......$45.00 for an exquisite brooch and they were often in two or three sizes and could have borders around them or be without a border/frame detail. He had a catalog and sold in small numbers to dealers and small shops. I do not think at the time he had a representative. His pieces could be easily found in the General New York area. Perhaps museum gift shops as well. I do not know if his son eventually took over the business and continued doing the pieces. I do believe there was a business up until a few years ago, and it may still be in operation. Essentailly the pieces look more important and impressive then they were sold to be. He did a number of delightful pieces of children and mother and child designs. There was also a large brooch of two angels that was a real winner. While these weren't mass produced, they were not hand made either and probably had a limited amount of hand finishing work done on them. He was quite skillful on oxidizing and patinating the pieces. If his son hasn't continued the business, I would guess his pieces will eventually be quite collectable. I believe he told me he made them from molds.

information provided by Lolly Commanday

"MW" (etched)



Example is a pendant, about 7-1/4" long by 1-1/4" wide at the widest point. It's roughly textured sterling with applied silver balls, and the long fringe is of brass wire with brass ball terminals. All on a sterling neckring.

submitted by Patrick Kapty



This sterling ring has British hallmarks, and I see that it's from London,1972, but though I've looked on various sites, (and I've also seen a couple of pieces online signed in the same way) I can't find the maker, P.G.W. Does anyone know who who this is?

submitted by Wendy

A friend of mine has identified this mark as Peter Guy Watson. A similar style
ring sold on Ebay recently for about 70GBP ($110). There is a ring and pendant
set currently listed on eBay US at $1500 - rather ambitious maybe!

information provided by Carmel (UK)


(unsigned jewelry that looks like Weckstrom) I'm thinking of bidding on a pair of Weckstrom earrings but they are unsigned. Did Weckstrom ever do items from his own series which were unsigned?

submitted by Sheryl

Weckstrom jewellery always had marks on however he did not always sign BW on pieces but there would be the lapponia logo on all of the jewellery going back to jthe late 1960s which is a crown in a box some say it looks like a large W in a box.Be careful I see many things on the net that people say are Weckstrom when they are NOT .

information provided by Vanessa Paterson, Retro Gallery.

Tapio Wirkkala

Hi everyone! Thanks in advance for all your expertise. I need help identifying the Maker/Designer, Country of origin, Date of
making, as well as, anyother information you have about this pendant.

submitted by Cindy

This looks to be the Finnish designer Tapio Wirkkala's Silver Moon Pendant.

information provided by Sarah, Cambridge (UK)


lower case "g y" with an "s" under the bowl of the " y" submitted by Rich
"Yesterman" or "Justerman" I am seeking information on an artist who makes silver cat jewellry - the name is Yesterman or Justerman - sorry, it was said to me not spelled.

This person is apparently from Connecticut. Any ideas?

Thanks all,

submitted by Katherine 
"Ky, Kay Young, sterling" I've bought two items now at different times in the past couple of years signed by this maker. She signs her work Ky, Kay Young and of course sterling. Just wondering if anyone has heard of this maker and when she worked or where.

submitted by Jackie Weeks

'RBZ" Is anyone familiar with the hallmark R.B.Z. ? Definitely Mexican. Thanks for any help

submitted by Judy
Marci Zelmenoff

Marci Zelmenoff    submitted by Gail Selig

I went to school with Marci Zelmanoff - Southern Illinois University in the late 60's - She started out as a painting major and then switched to metals and began making macrame wire jewelry. I believe she tried her hand at teaching somewhere near Detroit after graduating and then moved to NYC. By the early 80's, I saw some slides of her work - brooches - wires fused to flat sheets to make gestural drawings of female figures. Last I heard, she was no longer making jewelry.

information provided by Mary Hu

Marci Zelmanoff's jewelry was featured in an article in Craft Horizons, Feb. 1971 and a photograph of one of her sculptural body pieces from that era was on the cover.  

Zelmanoff was born in 1942 in Philadelphia.  She studied at the Rhode Island school of Design and received a MFA at Southern Illinois University. She began her career as a painter, but switched to sculpture in 1964.  Her primary influences were her teachers, Brent Kington and Olaf Skoogfors.  She had a "one man" show at the Edward Sherbeyn Gallery in Chicago in 1971. Her jewelry was described in Craft Horizons as incorporating "tenth century Celtic art, art nouveau, and the irreconcilable present."  Marci Zelmanoff is also recognized in "Jewelry Concepts and Technology" by Oppi Untracht.   

information provided by Marbeth Schon


"Zina" :

(example was a brooch.marked, ZINA 925" )

submitted by Heidi


Ernest Ziegfeld, 1912-2004, was an jewelry instructor at Long Beach State College in California.   He graduated from Southwest Missouri State College in Springfield and received his Master of Fine Arts degree at Cranbrook.  He also attended Washington University in St. Louis and New Mexico Highlands University.  In 1959, he was Assistant Professor of Fine Arts at Utaj State University in Logan teaching metalsmithing and three-dimensional design from his Hyde Park Studio.  He produced Hollowware, flatware, jewelry, and woodenware.  He exhibited in the Walker Art Center's Second Contemporary Exhibit on Paper.  He worked with Harry Bertoiaprobably meeting him in Cranbrook and again in California and some of his jewelry is very reminiscent of the work of Bertoia.

information provided by Marbeth Schon

"Z W& Co"

Zoltan White


(also continuing discussing regarding British hallmarking)


(Example was a large, heavy, sterling silver Art Nouveau-style bracelet, very ornate with a large rectangular curved-top chrysoprase surrounded by faceted amethyst, citrine, and small cab chrysoprase and pearls, also marked sterling)  pic

submitted by Marilyn Ostrow

(the second example is a ring. The markings are: MADE IN ENGLAND, STERLING, ZW & Co. The stones   are genuine (amethyst, citrines, sapphire, peridot), but not the best quality. I believe it was a pin converted to a ring. To me, stylistically, it screams Sibyl Dunlop. For reference, see: Karlin, "Jewelry & Metalwork in the Arts & Crafts Tradition", page 54 - the pin with the hexagonal amethyst has silver scrollwork that is very similar around the green faceted stones Schiffer, "Silver Jewelry Designs", page 99 - the pin in the bottom right hand corner also is quite similar and has faceted stones. )

submitted by Ramona Tung

Z.W. & Co. is the mark for Zoltan White, a British Arts & Crafts jeweler.

information provided by Mary Marchione

This is something I've been wondering about for quite a while.  I own several pieces by ZW&Co, who to my understanding was in business from possibly circa 1900 til at least 1940's (not sure about the latter date). All 4 of the pieces I own are marked "ZW&Co", "Made in England" and "Silver". BUT - why aren't they marked with the regular British hallmarks that I thought pieces were supposed to be marked with during that era?  Wasn't it a requirement?  Were these made for export?  Or what?

submitted by Marilyn in central MA

British (and some other countries') hallmarking laws were not always enforced with jewelry. Many manufacturers evaded hallmarking, especially when the amount of silver in a piece was not great. I can't cite the source off the top of my head (this information is not found in most books on hallmarks), but when I have more time, I will try to find out where I got this info. I'm thinking it was in Shirley Bury's 2-volume opus, Jewellery 1789-1910, The International Era. (And trying to track down citations in THAT source does take some time!).

I have photographed a number of British pieces with no hallmarks at all - even Liberty & Co.'s jewelry is sometimes just marked "sterling" or "silver" with the maker's mark, but no place of assay, lion passant, or date letter. I don't believe being made for export or domestic sale had anything to do with it. From what I can gather from my reading, I don't think there WAS a controlling factor involved here, but if one of our British members can enlighten us further, I'd be pleased to know if there is/was one.
information provided by Chirstie Romero

hi Silverfans,just to sort out things regarding the British hallmarking act. In Briton only items over a certain weight have to be hallmarked by law. At present I gram of gold must be hallmark and I can not remember off hand the weight limit on silver.
This is why sometimes things are not assayed. Some Jewellers insisted that all items are hallmarked that they handle. others it was a matter of cost effectiveness.
So there are legal weight limits.

--continuing with the discussion on hallmarks on British Jewellery, the minimum weight before it must be assayed by law is 7 grams for silver 1 gram for gold, However there are some exceptions on this, any jewellery which is of artistic value and that hallmarks would damage the work or the item can not be hallmarked due to it being delicate these are exempt lot of studio works did not get hallmarked due to the costs involved like the British arts and crafts movement a lot of that is not Hallmarked. I would say 90% of all silver is hallmarked and 99% of gold is hallmarked. It is rare to come across un hallmarked British Jewellery but it does happen also a lot of Companies did have there own punches and could punch there own company name in without it going through assay which only really tests the content of the metal involved.

I am posting a link to the Birmingham assaying office that I hope all will find helpful.
The hallmark act of 1974 changed in 1999 so if you deal in British Jewellery this will help you identify some of the changes that many of you may not be
information provided by Vanessa Paterson.  

"CFZ"(or CF with a broken arrow) also symbols which look like a sunburst or asterisk and lines which form a type of tent (or tepee) symbol. (Example was a large modern abstract sterling silver brooch with painted stone and small circle of gold)

submitted by Marbeth  Schon



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